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Retinal-glia ischemia and inflammation induced by chronic stress: The SABPA study


Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; von Känel, Roland; van Wyk, Roelof D; Wentzel, Annemarie; Steyn, Hendrik S; van Vuuren, Pieter; Malan, Nico T (2020). Retinal-glia ischemia and inflammation induced by chronic stress: The SABPA study. Brain and Behavior, 2:100027.

Abstract

Background

Psychobiological processes linking stress and vascular diseases remain poorly understood. The retina and the brain share a common embryonic-diencephalon origin and blood-barrier physiology e.g. ongoing ischemia facilitates S100B release with astrocytic activity and glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein expression (GFAP). However, GFAP decreases revealed astrocyte pathology in the prefrontal cortex of depression/suicide cases; and might be a key mechanism in stress – disease pathways.
Methods

A chronic emotional stress phenotype independent of age, ethnicity or sex was used to stratify the current prospective cohort (N ​= ​359; aged 46 ​± ​9 years) into Stress (N ​= ​236) and no-Stress groups (N ​= ​123). Prospective data for glia ischemia risk markers were obtained, including 24 ​h BP, fasting S100B, GFAP, HbA1C and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α). At 3-yr follow-up: diastolic-ocular-perfusion-pressure (indicating hypo-perfusion risk) was measured and retinal vessel calibers were quantified from digital images in the mydriatic eye.
Results

Higher hypertension (75% vs. 16%), diabetes (13% vs. 0%) and retinopathy (57% vs. 45%) prevalence was observed in Stress compared to no-Stress individuals. Stressed individuals had consistently raised S100B, TNF-α, HbA1C and higher diastolic-ocular-perfusion-pressure, but decreases in GFAP and GFAP:S100B. Furthermore stroke risk markers, arterial narrowing and venous widening were associated with consistently raised S100B, GFAP:S100B (p ​= ​0.060), TNF-α and higher diastolic-ocular-perfusion-pressure [Adj. R2 0.39–0.41, p ​≤ ​0.05]. No retinal-glia associations were evident in the no-Stress group.
Conclusions

Retinal-glia ischemia and inflammation was induced by chronic stress. Persistent higher inflammation and S100B with GFAP decreases further reflected stress-induced astrocyte pathology in the human retina. It is recommended to increase awareness on chronic stress and susceptibility for brain ischemia.

Abstract

Background

Psychobiological processes linking stress and vascular diseases remain poorly understood. The retina and the brain share a common embryonic-diencephalon origin and blood-barrier physiology e.g. ongoing ischemia facilitates S100B release with astrocytic activity and glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein expression (GFAP). However, GFAP decreases revealed astrocyte pathology in the prefrontal cortex of depression/suicide cases; and might be a key mechanism in stress – disease pathways.
Methods

A chronic emotional stress phenotype independent of age, ethnicity or sex was used to stratify the current prospective cohort (N ​= ​359; aged 46 ​± ​9 years) into Stress (N ​= ​236) and no-Stress groups (N ​= ​123). Prospective data for glia ischemia risk markers were obtained, including 24 ​h BP, fasting S100B, GFAP, HbA1C and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α). At 3-yr follow-up: diastolic-ocular-perfusion-pressure (indicating hypo-perfusion risk) was measured and retinal vessel calibers were quantified from digital images in the mydriatic eye.
Results

Higher hypertension (75% vs. 16%), diabetes (13% vs. 0%) and retinopathy (57% vs. 45%) prevalence was observed in Stress compared to no-Stress individuals. Stressed individuals had consistently raised S100B, TNF-α, HbA1C and higher diastolic-ocular-perfusion-pressure, but decreases in GFAP and GFAP:S100B. Furthermore stroke risk markers, arterial narrowing and venous widening were associated with consistently raised S100B, GFAP:S100B (p ​= ​0.060), TNF-α and higher diastolic-ocular-perfusion-pressure [Adj. R2 0.39–0.41, p ​≤ ​0.05]. No retinal-glia associations were evident in the no-Stress group.
Conclusions

Retinal-glia ischemia and inflammation was induced by chronic stress. Persistent higher inflammation and S100B with GFAP decreases further reflected stress-induced astrocyte pathology in the human retina. It is recommended to increase awareness on chronic stress and susceptibility for brain ischemia.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Klinik für Konsiliarpsychiatrie und Psychosomatik
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 February 2020
Deposited On:18 Feb 2020 12:15
Last Modified:22 Feb 2020 02:09
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2162-3279
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2019.100027

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