The farmed blue fox (Alopex lagopus) is particularly susceptible to congenital infections of the microsporidian species Encephalitozoon cuniculi. This report is based on an outbreak of the disease in Finland with high mortality. Five pups (four males and one female) with prolonged disease were examined. The pups had moderate pathological alterations in the kidneys and mild lesions were found in the brains, hearts, salivary and prostatic glands. Diagnosis of E. cuniculi infection was made from serological tests (ELISA, CIA, IFAT), and by in vitro isolation of the parasite from the brain of all five pups investigated. The identity was confirmed by molecular means as E. cuniculi strain II ('mouse strain'). Novel histopathological lesions not described as yet in fox encephalitozoonosis are presented. These include cerebral infarction and necrotizing inflammation of the renal pelvis. The sources and mechanisms of spreading of E. cuniculi to blue foxes are discussed.