The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in glycaemic reaction in response to various physical activities in 20 young boys (14.4 ± 1.6 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and with either vitamin D deficiency or with suboptimal levels of vitamin D. Participants were divided into two groups (deficiency group-DG, n = 10; suboptimal group-SG, n = 10) according to their vitamin D levels. All patients performed aerobic and mixed (aerobic-anaerobic) physical efforts. During the exercise, the respiratory responses and glucose levels were monitored. Biochemical blood analyses were performed before each physical effort. The oxygen consumption was not significantly lower in SG during both aerobic and mixed effort (4.0% and 5.6%, respectively). The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was higher by 6.1% and the total daily dose of insulin (DDI) was higher by 18.4% in the DG. The differences were not statistically significant. Patients with lower vitamin D levels demonstrated an insignificantly higher glycaemic variability during days with both aerobic and mixed exercises. An appropriate vitamin D concentration in T1DM patients' blood may constitute a prophylactic factor for hyperglycaemia during anaerobic training and hypoglycaemia during aerobic training.