Dogs develop cancer spontaneously with age, with breed-specific risk underlying differences in genetics. Mammary tumors are reported as the most frequent neoplasia in intact female dogs. Their high prevalence in certain breeds suggests a genetic component, as it is the case in human familial breast cancer, distinctly in BRCA2-associated cancers. However, the molecular genetics of BRCA2 in the pathogenesis of canine cancer are still under investigation.Genetic variations of canine BRCA2 comprised single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions. The BRCA2 level has been shown to be reduced in tumor gland samples, suggesting that low expression of BRCA2 is contributing to mammary tumor development in dogs. Additionally, specific variations of the BRCA2 gene affect RAD51 binding strength, critically damage the BRCA2-RAD51 binding and further provoke a defective repair. In humans, preclinical and clinical data revealed a synthetic lethality interaction between BRCA2 mutations and PARP inhibition. PARP inhibitors are successfully used to increase chemo- and radiotherapy sensitivity, although they are also associated with numerous side effects and acquired resistance. Cancer treatment of canine patients could benefit from increased chemo- and radiosensitivity, as their cancer therapy protocols usually include only low doses of drugs or radiation. Early investigations show tolerability of iniparib in dogs. PARP inhibitors also imply higher therapy costs and consequently are less likely to be accepted by pet owners.We summarized the current evidence of canine BRCA2 gene alterations and their association with mammary tumors. Mutations in the canine BRCA2 gene have the potential to be exploited in clinical therapy through the usage of PARP inhibitors. However, further investigations are needed before introducing PARP inhibitors in veterinary clinical practice.