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Chemical, cytotoxic and genotoxic analysis of etidronate in sodium hypochlorite solution


Ballal, N V; Das, S; Rao, B S S; Zehnder, Matthias; Mohn, D (2019). Chemical, cytotoxic and genotoxic analysis of etidronate in sodium hypochlorite solution. International Endodontic Journal, 52(8):1228-1234.

Abstract

AIM
To test whether the incorporation of a chelation powder, etidronate, marketed for root canal irrigation (Dual Rinse HEDP) into a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution induced additional cytotoxic and genotoxic effects not observed with NaOCl alone.
METHODOLOGY
Fresh and 24-h-old mixtures of 0.9 g of etidronate in 10 mL of 2.5% NaOCl were assessed for their basic chemical features including pH and the ability to chelate Ca$^{2+}$ from hydroxylapatite. Pure NaOCl and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with/without etidronate served as control solutions. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diluted solutions (1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000) were assessed on Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) using the MTT, clonogenic and micronucleus assays, respectively. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were applied with an alpha-type error of 5% (P < 0.05).
RESULTS
In mixtures of NaOCl and etidronate, the free available chlorine was lost completely after 24 h, and the pH dropped by more than 3 units. However, the ability of the etidronate to chelate Ca$^{2+}$ was maintained. The fresh mixtures of NaOCl and etidronate were not more toxic than NaOCl alone (P > 0.05), whilst the 24-h-old mixtures were less toxic (P < 0.05) and statistically similar to pure etidronate. Etidronate per se showed little cytotoxicity and no genotoxicity at the tested dilutions.
CONCLUSIONS
The ability of the used etidronate, Dual Rinse HEDP, to chelate calcium is not affected by NaOCl. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of mixed solutions is dictated by the presence of free available chlorine therein.

Abstract

AIM
To test whether the incorporation of a chelation powder, etidronate, marketed for root canal irrigation (Dual Rinse HEDP) into a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution induced additional cytotoxic and genotoxic effects not observed with NaOCl alone.
METHODOLOGY
Fresh and 24-h-old mixtures of 0.9 g of etidronate in 10 mL of 2.5% NaOCl were assessed for their basic chemical features including pH and the ability to chelate Ca$^{2+}$ from hydroxylapatite. Pure NaOCl and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with/without etidronate served as control solutions. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diluted solutions (1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000) were assessed on Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) using the MTT, clonogenic and micronucleus assays, respectively. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were applied with an alpha-type error of 5% (P < 0.05).
RESULTS
In mixtures of NaOCl and etidronate, the free available chlorine was lost completely after 24 h, and the pH dropped by more than 3 units. However, the ability of the etidronate to chelate Ca$^{2+}$ was maintained. The fresh mixtures of NaOCl and etidronate were not more toxic than NaOCl alone (P > 0.05), whilst the 24-h-old mixtures were less toxic (P < 0.05) and statistically similar to pure etidronate. Etidronate per se showed little cytotoxicity and no genotoxicity at the tested dilutions.
CONCLUSIONS
The ability of the used etidronate, Dual Rinse HEDP, to chelate calcium is not affected by NaOCl. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of mixed solutions is dictated by the presence of free available chlorine therein.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Dentistry
Language:English
Date:August 2019
Deposited On:11 Mar 2020 16:26
Last Modified:23 May 2024 01:52
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0143-2885
Additional Information:This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Ballal, N V; Das, S; Rao, B S S; Zehnder, M; Mohn, D (2019), which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/iej.13110. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. (http://www.wileyauthors.com/self-archiving)
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/iej.13110
PubMed ID:30848496
  • Content: Accepted Version