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Epidemic cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: an analysis of national surveillance data


Paternoster, Giulia; Boo, Gianluca; Wang, Craig; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Raimkulov, Kursanbek Mamasalievich; Zhoroev, Abdykadyr; Abdykerimov, Kubanychbek Kudaibergenovich; Kronenberg, Philipp Andreas; Müllhaupt, Beat; Furrer, Reinhard; Deplazes, Peter; Torgerson, Paul R (2020). Epidemic cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: an analysis of national surveillance data. The Lancet Global Health, 8(4):e603-e611.

Abstract

Background
Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are among the priority neglected zoonotic diseases for which WHO advocates control. The incidence of both cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis has increased substantially in the past 30 years in Kyrgyzstan. Given the scarcity of adequate data on the local geographical variation of these focal diseases, we aimed to investigate within-country incidence and geographical variation of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis at a high spatial resolution in Kyrgyzstan.
Methods
We mapped all confirmed surgical cases of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis reported through the national echinococcosis surveillance system in Kyrgyzstan between Jan 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2016, from nine regional databases. We then estimated crude surgical incidence, standardised incidence, and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of primary cases (ie, excluding relapses) based on age and sex at country, region, district, and local community levels. Finally, we tested the SIRs for global and local spatial autocorrelation to identify disease hotspots at the local community level. All incidence estimates were calculated per 100 000 population and averaged across the 3-year study period to obtain annual estimates.
Findings
The surveillance system reported 2359 primary surgical cases of cystic echinococcosis and 546 primary surgical cases of alveolar echinococcosis. Country-level crude surgical incidence was 13·1 per 100 000 population per year for cystic echinococcosis and 3·02 per 100 000 population per year for alveolar echinococcosis. At the local community level, we found annual crude surgical incidences up to 176 per 100 000 population in Sary-Kamysh (Jalal-Abad region) for cystic echinococcosis and 246 per 100 000 population in Uch-Dobo (Alay district, Osh region) for alveolar echinococcosis. Significant hotspots of cystic echinococcosis were found in four regions: Osh (five local communities in Uzgen district and four in Alay district), Naryn (three local communities in Jumgal district and one in Naryn district), Talas (three local communities in Talas district), and Chuy (one local community in Jayyl district). Significant alveolar echinococcosis hotspots were detected in the Osh region (11 communities in Alay district, including the local community of Sary Mogol, and one in Chong-Alay district) and in the Naryn region (five communities in Jumgal district and three in At-Bashy district), in the southwest and centre of the country.
Interpretation
Our analyses reveal remarkable within-country variation in the surgical incidence of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. These high-resolution maps identify precise locations where interventions and epidemiological research should be targeted to reduce the burden of human cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis.
Funding
Swiss National Science Foundation.

Abstract

Background
Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are among the priority neglected zoonotic diseases for which WHO advocates control. The incidence of both cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis has increased substantially in the past 30 years in Kyrgyzstan. Given the scarcity of adequate data on the local geographical variation of these focal diseases, we aimed to investigate within-country incidence and geographical variation of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis at a high spatial resolution in Kyrgyzstan.
Methods
We mapped all confirmed surgical cases of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis reported through the national echinococcosis surveillance system in Kyrgyzstan between Jan 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2016, from nine regional databases. We then estimated crude surgical incidence, standardised incidence, and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of primary cases (ie, excluding relapses) based on age and sex at country, region, district, and local community levels. Finally, we tested the SIRs for global and local spatial autocorrelation to identify disease hotspots at the local community level. All incidence estimates were calculated per 100 000 population and averaged across the 3-year study period to obtain annual estimates.
Findings
The surveillance system reported 2359 primary surgical cases of cystic echinococcosis and 546 primary surgical cases of alveolar echinococcosis. Country-level crude surgical incidence was 13·1 per 100 000 population per year for cystic echinococcosis and 3·02 per 100 000 population per year for alveolar echinococcosis. At the local community level, we found annual crude surgical incidences up to 176 per 100 000 population in Sary-Kamysh (Jalal-Abad region) for cystic echinococcosis and 246 per 100 000 population in Uch-Dobo (Alay district, Osh region) for alveolar echinococcosis. Significant hotspots of cystic echinococcosis were found in four regions: Osh (five local communities in Uzgen district and four in Alay district), Naryn (three local communities in Jumgal district and one in Naryn district), Talas (three local communities in Talas district), and Chuy (one local community in Jayyl district). Significant alveolar echinococcosis hotspots were detected in the Osh region (11 communities in Alay district, including the local community of Sary Mogol, and one in Chong-Alay district) and in the Naryn region (five communities in Jumgal district and three in At-Bashy district), in the southwest and centre of the country.
Interpretation
Our analyses reveal remarkable within-country variation in the surgical incidence of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. These high-resolution maps identify precise locations where interventions and epidemiological research should be targeted to reduce the burden of human cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis.
Funding
Swiss National Science Foundation.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology

07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Mathematics
07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Medicine
Language:English
Date:2020
Deposited On:19 Mar 2020 15:42
Last Modified:20 Mar 2020 16:03
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2214-109X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(20)30038-3

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