In this chapter the state of the art in comparative political communication research is reviewed. First, the chapter reflects upon the development of comparative research that today aspires to knowledge about social prerequisites and political consequences of communication that go beyond a single country, region or field of communication. Second, the authors discuss key approaches to theorize and measure political communication beyond the nation state and national publics.They propose more meaningful frameworks for comparative research than the seemingly outdated country category (e.g., media systems, political communication cultures, political information environments). Finally, the substantial progress made by applying new concepts, complex designs and sophisticated measures is discussed. Applications and examples include election campaigning, the interaction between media actors and political actors, and the impact of the Internet on democracy. The chapter closes with a summary of core advances and promising areas of future scholarship.