We have previously shown that erythropoietin (EPO) potentiates the immune response. Analysis of various possible cellular mediators was performed on EPO-injected mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human EPO (tg6). Here we present our studies on neutrophils, peritoneal (casein induced), and from the peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. Neutrophil counts were elevated in peripheral blood and spleens of the tg6 mice, yet, no other EPO-associated effects were detected in the count and function of the different neutrophil populations. Hence, neutrophils are probably not mediators of the EPO immunological effects, although their counts may be affected by extreme EPO levels.