For clinically significant, locally confined prostate cancer, whole-gland radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy are established effective treatment strategies that, however, come at a cost of significant morbidity related to urinary and sexual side effects. The concept of risk stratification paired with a better understanding of prognostic factors has led to the development of alternative management options including active surveillance and focal therapy for appropriately selected patients with localized disease. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one such minimally invasive, image-guided treatment option for prostate cancer. Due to the relative novelty of HIFU and the increased use of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer, many radiologists are not yet familiar with imaging findings related to HIFU, their temporal evolution as well as imaging appearance of recurrent disease after this type of focal therapy. HIFU induces sharply demarcated, localized coagulative necrosis of a tumor through thermal energy delivered via an endorectal or transurethral ultrasound transducer. In this pictorial review, we aim at providing relevant background information that will guide the reader through the general principles of HIFU in the prostate, as well as demonstrate the imaging appearance of expected post-HIFU changes versus recurrent tumor.