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Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography, computed tomography, cystoscopy and cytology to detect urinary tract malignancies in patients with asymptomatic hematuria


Fankhauser, Christian Daniel; Waisbrod, Sharon; Fierz, Cindy; Becker, Anton S; Kranzbühler, Benedikt; Eberli, Daniel; Sulser, Tullio; Mostafid, Hugh; Hermanns, Thomas (2020). Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography, computed tomography, cystoscopy and cytology to detect urinary tract malignancies in patients with asymptomatic hematuria. World Journal of Urology:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the incidence of urinary tract malignancies (UTM) and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cytology with cystoscopy, renal ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) in patients with hematuria.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who underwent cystoscopy, cytology, US and CT for hematuria between 2011 and 2017. Age, gender, BMI, smoking status, and results of further diagnostic interventions including transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB), ureterorenoscopy (URS), renal biopsy and imaging were extracted from medical charts. Logistic regression to identify risk factors for UTM was performed. Discriminatory accuracy of US, CT and cytology was assessed by 2 × 2 tables.
RESULTS: Of 847 patients, 432 (51%) presented with non-visible hematuria (NVH) and 415 (49%) with visible hematuria (VH). Of all patients with NVH, seven (1.6%) had bladder cancer (BCA), three (< 1%) had renal cell cancer (RCC) and no single patient had upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). Of the patients with VH, 62 (14.9%) were diagnosed with BCA, 7 (1.6%) with RCC and 4 (< 1%) with UTUC. In multivariable analysis VH, higher age, smoking and lower BMI were associated with an increased risk for UTM. The specificity/negative predictive value of US for the detection of RCC or UTUC in patients with NVH and VH were 96%/100% and 95%/99%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Due to the low incidence of UTM, the necessity of further diagnostics should be questioned in patients with NVH. In contrast, patients with VH are at considerable risk for BCA, and cystoscopy and upper tract imaging is justified.

Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the incidence of urinary tract malignancies (UTM) and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cytology with cystoscopy, renal ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) in patients with hematuria.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who underwent cystoscopy, cytology, US and CT for hematuria between 2011 and 2017. Age, gender, BMI, smoking status, and results of further diagnostic interventions including transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB), ureterorenoscopy (URS), renal biopsy and imaging were extracted from medical charts. Logistic regression to identify risk factors for UTM was performed. Discriminatory accuracy of US, CT and cytology was assessed by 2 × 2 tables.
RESULTS: Of 847 patients, 432 (51%) presented with non-visible hematuria (NVH) and 415 (49%) with visible hematuria (VH). Of all patients with NVH, seven (1.6%) had bladder cancer (BCA), three (< 1%) had renal cell cancer (RCC) and no single patient had upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). Of the patients with VH, 62 (14.9%) were diagnosed with BCA, 7 (1.6%) with RCC and 4 (< 1%) with UTUC. In multivariable analysis VH, higher age, smoking and lower BMI were associated with an increased risk for UTM. The specificity/negative predictive value of US for the detection of RCC or UTUC in patients with NVH and VH were 96%/100% and 95%/99%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Due to the low incidence of UTM, the necessity of further diagnostics should be questioned in patients with NVH. In contrast, patients with VH are at considerable risk for BCA, and cystoscopy and upper tract imaging is justified.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Urological Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Urology
Language:English
Date:2 April 2020
Deposited On:20 Jul 2020 16:33
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 15:16
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0724-4983
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03171-6
PubMed ID:32240349

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