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Predifferentiated Smooth Muscle-Like Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Bladder Engineering


Smolar, Jakub; Horst, Maya; Salemi, Souzan; Eberli, Daniel (2020). Predifferentiated Smooth Muscle-Like Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Bladder Engineering. Tissue Engineering. Part A, 26(17-18):979-992.

Abstract

Introduction: All organs of human body are a conglomerate of various cell types with multidirectional interplay between the different cells and the surrounding microenvironment, leading to a stable tissue formation, homeostasis, and function. To develop a functional smooth muscle tissue, we need to simulate and create a multicellular microenvironment. The multilineage adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which can be easily harvested in large numbers, may provide an alternative cell source for the replacement of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in cell-based detrusor bioengineering therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether predifferentiated smooth muscle-like ADSC (pADSC) can support SMCs to generate stable smooth muscle tissue through remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) and factor secretion. Methods: Rat SMC and pADSC were mono- and cocultured in the cell ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:5 (SMC-pADSC) and grown for up to 2 weeks in vitro. The expression of the SMC-specific markers alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, myosin heavy chain 11 (MyH11), and smoothelin was assessed, and cell proliferation and contractility were analyzed. Proteomic analysis of the secretome (cell-cell contact was compared with a noncontact transwell 1:1 coculture) and the cell pellets was performed, with the focus on ECM deposition and remodeling, integrin expression and growth factor secretion. Results: SMC and pADSC were strongly positive for all smooth muscle markers. After 1 and 2 weeks of culture, the 1:1 cell ratio developed a significantly higher number of smooth muscle organoids and improved contractility. These organoids were highly structured, consisting of an SMC core surrounded by a pADSC layer. The deposition of various EMC proteins, such as collagens 1a1, 1a2, 2a1, 3a1, 5a2, 6a2, 12a1, and fibrillin 1, was significantly increased. A decreased matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP9 and MMP13 secretion, as well as increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and TIMP2 secretion were found in the contact coculture compared with the monoculture controls. Conclusion: SMC-pADSC 1:1 cocultures exhibit an improved cell proliferation, contractility, and organoid formation compared with all other ratios and monoculture, while retaining a stable phenotype that is comparable with the SMC monoculture. These effects are mediated by increased ECM deposition and tight ECM remodeling by the secreted MMP and TIMP. Impact statement Harvesting smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from diseased bladders represents a significant limitation for clinical translation of bladder Tissue Engineering. Our results suggest that autologous predifferentiated smooth muscle-like adipose-derived stem cell can substitute SMCs, and may be used in combination with SMCs to generate contractile detrusor muscle tissue for patients suffering from end-stage bladder diseases. We demonstrate a beneficial effect when using these cells in a 1:1 ratio with improved deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and superior remodeling of the ECM by matrix metalloproteinases and decreased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase activity.

Abstract

Introduction: All organs of human body are a conglomerate of various cell types with multidirectional interplay between the different cells and the surrounding microenvironment, leading to a stable tissue formation, homeostasis, and function. To develop a functional smooth muscle tissue, we need to simulate and create a multicellular microenvironment. The multilineage adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which can be easily harvested in large numbers, may provide an alternative cell source for the replacement of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in cell-based detrusor bioengineering therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether predifferentiated smooth muscle-like ADSC (pADSC) can support SMCs to generate stable smooth muscle tissue through remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) and factor secretion. Methods: Rat SMC and pADSC were mono- and cocultured in the cell ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:5 (SMC-pADSC) and grown for up to 2 weeks in vitro. The expression of the SMC-specific markers alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, myosin heavy chain 11 (MyH11), and smoothelin was assessed, and cell proliferation and contractility were analyzed. Proteomic analysis of the secretome (cell-cell contact was compared with a noncontact transwell 1:1 coculture) and the cell pellets was performed, with the focus on ECM deposition and remodeling, integrin expression and growth factor secretion. Results: SMC and pADSC were strongly positive for all smooth muscle markers. After 1 and 2 weeks of culture, the 1:1 cell ratio developed a significantly higher number of smooth muscle organoids and improved contractility. These organoids were highly structured, consisting of an SMC core surrounded by a pADSC layer. The deposition of various EMC proteins, such as collagens 1a1, 1a2, 2a1, 3a1, 5a2, 6a2, 12a1, and fibrillin 1, was significantly increased. A decreased matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP9 and MMP13 secretion, as well as increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and TIMP2 secretion were found in the contact coculture compared with the monoculture controls. Conclusion: SMC-pADSC 1:1 cocultures exhibit an improved cell proliferation, contractility, and organoid formation compared with all other ratios and monoculture, while retaining a stable phenotype that is comparable with the SMC monoculture. These effects are mediated by increased ECM deposition and tight ECM remodeling by the secreted MMP and TIMP. Impact statement Harvesting smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from diseased bladders represents a significant limitation for clinical translation of bladder Tissue Engineering. Our results suggest that autologous predifferentiated smooth muscle-like adipose-derived stem cell can substitute SMCs, and may be used in combination with SMCs to generate contractile detrusor muscle tissue for patients suffering from end-stage bladder diseases. We demonstrate a beneficial effect when using these cells in a 1:1 ratio with improved deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and superior remodeling of the ECM by matrix metalloproteinases and decreased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase activity.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Urological Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2020
Deposited On:08 Jun 2020 11:56
Last Modified:19 Sep 2020 01:05
Publisher:Mary Ann Liebert
ISSN:1937-3341
Additional Information:Final publication is available from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0216
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0216
PubMed ID:32093575

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