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Buffered lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 with sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate) in a 3:1 ratio is less painful than a 9:1 ratio: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial


Vent, Alexandra; Surber, Christian; Graf Johansen, Nicole Tracy; Figueiredo, Verena; Schönbächler, Georg; Imhof, Laurence; Buset, Caroline; Hafner, Jürg (2020). Buffered lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 with sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate) in a 3:1 ratio is less painful than a 9:1 ratio: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 83(1):159-165.

Abstract

Background: Neutralizing (buffering) lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 solution (Lido/Epi) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) (also called sodium bicarbonate) is widely used to reduce burning sensations during infiltration of Lido/Epi. Optimal mixing ratios have not been systematically investigated.

Objectives: To determine whether a Lido/Epi:NaHCO3 mixing ratio of 3:1 (investigational medicinal product 1) causes less pain during infiltration than a mixing ratio of 9:1 (IMP2) or unbuffered Lido/Epi (IMP3).

Methods: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (n = 2 × 24) with 4 investigational medicinal products (IMP1-4).

Results: The 3:1 mixing ratio was significantly less painful than the 9:1 ratio (P = .044). Unbuffered Lido/Epi was more painful than the buffered Lido/Epi (P = .001 vs IMP1; P = .033 vs IMP2). IMP4 (NaCl 0.9% [placebo]) was more painful than any of the anesthetic solutions (P = .001 vs IMP1; P = .001 vs IMP2; P = .016 vs IMP3). In all cases, the anesthesia was effective for at least 3 hours.

Limitations: Results of this trial cannot be generalized to other local anesthetics such as prilocaine, bupivacaine, or ropivacaine, which precipitate with NaHCO3 admixtures.

Conclusions: Lido/Epi-NaHCO3 mixtures effectively reduce burning pain during infiltration. The 3:1 mixing ratio is significantly less painful than the 9:1 ratio. Reported findings are of high practical relevance, given the extensive use of local anesthesia today.

Abstract

Background: Neutralizing (buffering) lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 solution (Lido/Epi) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) (also called sodium bicarbonate) is widely used to reduce burning sensations during infiltration of Lido/Epi. Optimal mixing ratios have not been systematically investigated.

Objectives: To determine whether a Lido/Epi:NaHCO3 mixing ratio of 3:1 (investigational medicinal product 1) causes less pain during infiltration than a mixing ratio of 9:1 (IMP2) or unbuffered Lido/Epi (IMP3).

Methods: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (n = 2 × 24) with 4 investigational medicinal products (IMP1-4).

Results: The 3:1 mixing ratio was significantly less painful than the 9:1 ratio (P = .044). Unbuffered Lido/Epi was more painful than the buffered Lido/Epi (P = .001 vs IMP1; P = .033 vs IMP2). IMP4 (NaCl 0.9% [placebo]) was more painful than any of the anesthetic solutions (P = .001 vs IMP1; P = .001 vs IMP2; P = .016 vs IMP3). In all cases, the anesthesia was effective for at least 3 hours.

Limitations: Results of this trial cannot be generalized to other local anesthetics such as prilocaine, bupivacaine, or ropivacaine, which precipitate with NaHCO3 admixtures.

Conclusions: Lido/Epi-NaHCO3 mixtures effectively reduce burning pain during infiltration. The 3:1 mixing ratio is significantly less painful than the 9:1 ratio. Reported findings are of high practical relevance, given the extensive use of local anesthesia today.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Dermatology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Dermatology
Language:English
Date:1 July 2020
Deposited On:17 Jun 2020 12:36
Last Modified:23 Jul 2024 01:39
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0190-9622
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.09.088
PubMed ID:31958526