Numerous fundamental biological processes require individual cells to correctly interpret and accurately respond to incoming cues. How intracellular signaling networks achieve the integration of complex information from various contexts remains unclear. Here we quantify epidermal growth factor-induced heterogeneous activation of multiple signaling proteins, as well as cellular state markers, in the same single cells across multiple spatial scales. We find that the acute response of each node in a signaling network is tightly coupled to the cellular state in a partially non-redundant manner. This generates a multimodal response that senses the diversity of cellular states better than any individual response alone and allows individual cells to accurately place growth factor concentration in the context of their cellular state. We propose that the non-redundant multimodal property of signaling networks in mammalian cells underlies specific and context-aware cellular decision making in a multicellular setting.