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Elucidation of the Structure and Synthesis of Neuroprotective Low Molecular Mass Components of the Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom


Forster, Yvonne M; Green, Jennifer Leigh; Khatiwada, Apeksha; Liberato, José Luiz; Narayana Reddy, Poli Adi; Salvino, Joseph M; Bienz, Stefan; Bigler, Laurent; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Karklin Fontana, Andréia Cristina (2020). Elucidation of the Structure and Synthesis of Neuroprotective Low Molecular Mass Components of the Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 11(11):1573-1596.

Abstract

The South American social spider Parawixia bistriata produces a venom containing complex organic compounds with intriguing biological activities. The crude venom leads to paralysis in termites and stimulates l-glutamate uptake and inhibits GABA uptake in rat brain synaptosomes. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter at the insect neuromuscular junction and at the mammalian central nervous system, suggesting a modulation of the glutamatergic system by the venom. Parawixin1, 2, and 10 (Pwx1, 2 and 10) are HPLC fractions that demonstrate this bioactivity. Pwx1 stimulates l-glutamate uptake through the main transporter in the brain, EAAT2, and is neuroprotective in in vivo glaucoma models. Pxw2 inhibits GABA and glycine uptake in synaptosomes and inhibits seizures and neurodegeneration, and Pwx10 increases l-glutamate uptake in synaptosomes and is neuroprotective and anticonvulsant, shown in in vivo epilepsy models. Herein, we investigated the low molecular mass compounds in this venom and have found over 20 small compounds and 36 unique acylpolyamines with and without amino acid linkers. The active substances in fractions Pwx1 and Pwx2 require further investigation. We elucidated and confirmed the structure of the active acylpolyamine in Pwx10. Both fraction Pwx10 and the synthesized component enhance the activity of transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2, and, importantly, offer in vitro neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cultures. These data suggest that compounds with this mechanism could be developed into therapies for disorders in which l-glutamate excitotoxicity is involved.

Abstract

The South American social spider Parawixia bistriata produces a venom containing complex organic compounds with intriguing biological activities. The crude venom leads to paralysis in termites and stimulates l-glutamate uptake and inhibits GABA uptake in rat brain synaptosomes. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter at the insect neuromuscular junction and at the mammalian central nervous system, suggesting a modulation of the glutamatergic system by the venom. Parawixin1, 2, and 10 (Pwx1, 2 and 10) are HPLC fractions that demonstrate this bioactivity. Pwx1 stimulates l-glutamate uptake through the main transporter in the brain, EAAT2, and is neuroprotective in in vivo glaucoma models. Pxw2 inhibits GABA and glycine uptake in synaptosomes and inhibits seizures and neurodegeneration, and Pwx10 increases l-glutamate uptake in synaptosomes and is neuroprotective and anticonvulsant, shown in in vivo epilepsy models. Herein, we investigated the low molecular mass compounds in this venom and have found over 20 small compounds and 36 unique acylpolyamines with and without amino acid linkers. The active substances in fractions Pwx1 and Pwx2 require further investigation. We elucidated and confirmed the structure of the active acylpolyamine in Pwx10. Both fraction Pwx10 and the synthesized component enhance the activity of transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2, and, importantly, offer in vitro neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cultures. These data suggest that compounds with this mechanism could be developed into therapies for disorders in which l-glutamate excitotoxicity is involved.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Life Sciences > Physiology
Life Sciences > Cognitive Neuroscience
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cell Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology, Cognitive Neuroscience, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:3 June 2020
Deposited On:14 Jul 2020 10:17
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 15:26
Publisher:American Chemical Society (ACS)
ISSN:1948-7193
Additional Information:This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Chemical Neuroscience, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00007
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00007

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