Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for many primary canine brain tumors. The radiation dose tolerated by surrounding healthy brain tissue can be a limiting factor for radiation treatment and total dose as well as fractionation schedules, and volume effects may play a role in the outcome of patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy in dogs with brain tumors that showed signs of neurologic disease. Forty-six dogs with brain tumors were included in the analysis. In 34 dogs, computer-generated treatment plans were available, and dose-volume data could be obtained. The totally prescribed radiation therapy doses ranged from 35 to 52.5 Gy (mean = 40.9 [SD +/- 2.91) applied in 2.5- to 4-Gy fractions (mean = 3.2). The median overall survival time calculated for deaths attributable to worsening of neurologic signs was 1,174 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 693-1,655 days). Assuming that all deaths were due to disease or treatment consequences, the median survival time was 699 days (95% CI, 589-809 days). No prognostic clinical factors such as the location or size of the tumor or neurologic signs at presentation were identified. With computerized treatment planning and accurate positioning, high doses of radiation (> 80% of the total dose) could be limited to mean relative brain volumes of 35.3% (+/- 12.6). These small volumes may decrease the probability of severe late effects such as infarction or necrosis. In this study, very few immediate or early delayed adverse effects and no late effects were noted, and quality of life was good to excellent.