Renal reabsorption of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) is mainly mediated by the Na(+)-dependent P(i)-cotransporter NaPi-IIa that is expressed in the brush-border membrane (BBM) of renal proximal tubules. Regulation and apical expression of NaPi-IIa are known to depend on a network of interacting proteins. Most of the interacting partners identified so far associate with the COOH-terminal PDZ-binding motif (TRL) of NaPi-IIa. In this study GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) was identified as a novel interacting partner of NaPi-IIa applying a membrane yeast-two-hybrid system (MYTH 2.0) to screen a mouse kidney library with the TRL-truncated cotransporter as bait. GABARAP mRNA and protein are present in renal tubules, and the interaction of NaPi-IIa and GABARAP was confirmed by using glutathione S-transferase pulldowns from BBM and coimmunoprecipitations from transfected HEK293 cells. Amino acids 36-68 of GABARAP were identified as the determinant for the described interaction. The in vivo effects of this interaction were studied in a murine model. GABARAP(-/-) mice have reduced urinary excretion of P(i), higher Na(+)-dependent (32)P(i) uptake in BBM vesicles, and increased expression of NaPi-IIa in renal BBM compared with GABARAP(+/+) mice. The expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)1, an important scaffold for the apical expression of NaPi-IIa, is also increased in GABARAP(-/-) mice. The absence of GABARAP does not interfere with the regulation of the cotransporter by either parathyroid hormone or acute changes of dietary P(i) content.