Pressure on the biodiversity of ecosystems along many rivers is growing continuously due to the increasing number of hydropower facilities regulating downstream flow and sediment regimes. Despite a thorough understanding of the shortterm processes and interactions at this hydro-biosphere interface, long-term analyses of the impacts on floodplain dynamics are lacking. We used inter-annual Landsat 4, 5, 7 and 8 time series to analyze the effects of hydrological events on floodplain vegetation in four mountainous floodplains in the Swiss Alps. Using a spectral mixture analysis approach, we demonstrate that the floodplain vegetation dynamics of mountainous rivers can be recovered at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. Our results suggest that interactions between floods and floodplain vegetation are complex and not exclusively related to flood magnitude. Of the four reaches analyzed, only data gathered along the submountainous reach with a quasi-natural flow regime show a clear link between remotely sensed vegetation indices and floods. In addition, our 29-year time series shows a continuous upward trend in vegetation indices along the floodplains, strongest in the reaches affected by hydropower facilities. The approach presented in this study can be easily replicated in other mountain ranges by providing available flow data to verify the impact of hydropower on floodplain vegetation dynamics.