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N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors in hematopoietic cells: what have we learned?


Kalev-Zylinska, Maggie L; Hearn, James I; Makhro, Asya; Bogdanova, Anna (2020). N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors in hematopoietic cells: what have we learned? Frontiers in Physiology, 11:577.

Abstract

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) provides a pathway for glutamate-mediated inter-cellular communication, best known for its role in the brain but with multiple examples of functionality in non-neuronal cells. Data previously published by others and us provided ex vivo evidence that NMDARs regulate platelet and red blood cell (RBC) production. Here, we summarize what is known about these hematopoietic roles of the NMDAR. Types of NMDAR subunits expressed in megakaryocytes (platelet precursors) and erythroid cells are more commonly found in the developing rather than adult brain, suggesting trophic functions. Nevertheless, similar to their neuronal counterparts, hematopoietic NMDARs function as ion channels, and are permeable to calcium ions (Ca2+). Inhibitors that block open NMDAR (memantine and MK-801) interfere with megakaryocytic maturation and proplatelet formation in primary culture. The effect on proplatelet formation appears to involve Ca2+ influx-dependent regulation of the cytoskeletal remodeling. In contrast to normal megakaryocytes, NMDAR effects in leukemic Meg-01 cells are diverted away from differentiation to increase proliferation. NMDAR hypofunction triggers differentiation of Meg-01 cells with the bias toward erythropoiesis. The underlying mechanism involves changes in the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, cell stress pathways, and hematopoietic transcription factors that upon NMDAR inhibition shift from the predominance of megakaryocytic toward erythroid regulators. This ability of NMDAR to balance both megakaryocytic and erythroid cell fates suggests receptor involvement at the level of a bipotential megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor. In human erythroid precursors and circulating RBCs, NMDAR regulates intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. NMDAR activity supports survival of early proerythroblasts, and in mature RBCs NMDARs impact cellular hydration state, hemoglobin oxygen affinity, and nitric oxide synthase activity. Overexcitation of NMDAR in mature RBCs leads to Ca2+ overload, K+ loss, RBC dehydration, and oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. In summary, there is growing evidence that glutamate-NMDAR signaling regulates megakaryocytic and erythroid cells at different stages of maturation, with some intriguing differences emerging in NMDAR expression and function between normal and diseased cells. NMDAR signaling may provide new therapeutic opportunities in hematological disease, but in vivo applicability needs to be confirmed.

Abstract

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) provides a pathway for glutamate-mediated inter-cellular communication, best known for its role in the brain but with multiple examples of functionality in non-neuronal cells. Data previously published by others and us provided ex vivo evidence that NMDARs regulate platelet and red blood cell (RBC) production. Here, we summarize what is known about these hematopoietic roles of the NMDAR. Types of NMDAR subunits expressed in megakaryocytes (platelet precursors) and erythroid cells are more commonly found in the developing rather than adult brain, suggesting trophic functions. Nevertheless, similar to their neuronal counterparts, hematopoietic NMDARs function as ion channels, and are permeable to calcium ions (Ca2+). Inhibitors that block open NMDAR (memantine and MK-801) interfere with megakaryocytic maturation and proplatelet formation in primary culture. The effect on proplatelet formation appears to involve Ca2+ influx-dependent regulation of the cytoskeletal remodeling. In contrast to normal megakaryocytes, NMDAR effects in leukemic Meg-01 cells are diverted away from differentiation to increase proliferation. NMDAR hypofunction triggers differentiation of Meg-01 cells with the bias toward erythropoiesis. The underlying mechanism involves changes in the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, cell stress pathways, and hematopoietic transcription factors that upon NMDAR inhibition shift from the predominance of megakaryocytic toward erythroid regulators. This ability of NMDAR to balance both megakaryocytic and erythroid cell fates suggests receptor involvement at the level of a bipotential megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor. In human erythroid precursors and circulating RBCs, NMDAR regulates intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. NMDAR activity supports survival of early proerythroblasts, and in mature RBCs NMDARs impact cellular hydration state, hemoglobin oxygen affinity, and nitric oxide synthase activity. Overexcitation of NMDAR in mature RBCs leads to Ca2+ overload, K+ loss, RBC dehydration, and oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. In summary, there is growing evidence that glutamate-NMDAR signaling regulates megakaryocytic and erythroid cells at different stages of maturation, with some intriguing differences emerging in NMDAR expression and function between normal and diseased cells. NMDAR signaling may provide new therapeutic opportunities in hematological disease, but in vivo applicability needs to be confirmed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Physiology
Health Sciences > Physiology (medical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physiology (medical), Physiology
Language:English
Date:17 June 2020
Deposited On:27 Aug 2020 15:19
Last Modified:28 Aug 2020 20:00
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1664-042X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00577
PubMed ID:32625106

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