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Genomic profiling of late-onset basal cell carcinomas from two brothers with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome


Hasan Ali, O; Yurchenko, A A; Pavlova, O; Sartori, A; Bomze, D; Higgins, R; Ring, S S; Hartmann, F; Bühler, D; Fritzsche, F R; Jochum, W; Navarini, A A; Kim, A; French, L E; Dermitzakis, E; Christiano, A M; Hohl, D; Bickers, D R; Nikolaev, S I; Flatz, L (2021). Genomic profiling of late-onset basal cell carcinomas from two brothers with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology, 35(2):396-402.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. It is commonly caused by mutations in PTCH1 and chiefly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) developing prior to the age of 30 years. In rare cases, NBCCS presents with a late onset of BCC development.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate BCC tumorigenesis in two brothers, who showed characteristic features of NBCCS but developed their first BCCs only after the age of 40 years. Two other siblings did not show signs of NBCCS.

RESULTS

We obtained blood samples from four siblings and nine BCCs from the two brothers with NBCCS. Whole exome sequencing and RNA sequencing revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of PTCH1 in eight out of nine tumours that consistently involved the same haplotype on chromosome 9. This haplotype contained a germinal splice site mutation in PTCH1 (NM_001083605:exon9:c.763-6C>A). Analysis of germline DNA confirmed segregation of this mutation with the disease. All BCCs harboured additional somatic loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in the remaining PTCH1 allele which are not typically seen in other cases of NBCCS. This suggests a hypomorphic nature of the germinal PTCH1 mutation in this family. Furthermore, all BCCs had a similar tumour mutational burden compared to BCCs of unrelated NBCCS patients while harbouring a higher number of damaging PTCH1 mutations.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest that a sequence of three genetic hits leads to the late development of BCCs in two brothers with NBCCS: a hypomorphic germline mutation, followed by somatic LOH and additional mutations that complete PTCH1 inactivation. These genetic events are in line with the late occurrence of the first BCC and with the higher number of damaging PTCH1 mutations compared to usual cases of NBCCS.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. It is commonly caused by mutations in PTCH1 and chiefly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) developing prior to the age of 30 years. In rare cases, NBCCS presents with a late onset of BCC development.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate BCC tumorigenesis in two brothers, who showed characteristic features of NBCCS but developed their first BCCs only after the age of 40 years. Two other siblings did not show signs of NBCCS.

RESULTS

We obtained blood samples from four siblings and nine BCCs from the two brothers with NBCCS. Whole exome sequencing and RNA sequencing revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of PTCH1 in eight out of nine tumours that consistently involved the same haplotype on chromosome 9. This haplotype contained a germinal splice site mutation in PTCH1 (NM_001083605:exon9:c.763-6C>A). Analysis of germline DNA confirmed segregation of this mutation with the disease. All BCCs harboured additional somatic loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in the remaining PTCH1 allele which are not typically seen in other cases of NBCCS. This suggests a hypomorphic nature of the germinal PTCH1 mutation in this family. Furthermore, all BCCs had a similar tumour mutational burden compared to BCCs of unrelated NBCCS patients while harbouring a higher number of damaging PTCH1 mutations.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest that a sequence of three genetic hits leads to the late development of BCCs in two brothers with NBCCS: a hypomorphic germline mutation, followed by somatic LOH and additional mutations that complete PTCH1 inactivation. These genetic events are in line with the late occurrence of the first BCC and with the higher number of damaging PTCH1 mutations compared to usual cases of NBCCS.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Dermatology
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:February 2021
Deposited On:28 Aug 2020 12:32
Last Modified:23 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0926-9959
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.16767
PubMed ID:32564428