# Checking the basis of intraosseous access-Radiological study on tibial dimensions in the pediatric population

Capobianco, Stéphanie; Weiss, Markus; Schraner, Thomas; Stimec, Jennifer; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Neuhaus, Diego (2020). Checking the basis of intraosseous access-Radiological study on tibial dimensions in the pediatric population. Paediatric Anaesthesia, 30(10):1116-1123.

## Abstract

BACKGROUND

Malposition of intraosseous needles in pediatric patients is frequently reported. Incorrect needle length and penetration depth related to the puncture site and level are possible causes.

AIMS

Aim of this study was to analyze anatomic dimensions of the proximal tibia in the pediatric population with respect to intraosseous needle placement and needle tip position.

METHODS

Plain lower leg radiographs of children aged from birth to 16 years of age were analyzed. Pretibial tissue layer, cortical bone thickness, and the diameter of the medullary cavity were measured at two different puncture levels. Data were analyzed as descriptive statistics and by polynomial regression plots and set in context to commonly used EZ-IO$^{®}$ needle lengths of 15 and 25 mm.

RESULTS

Radiographs from 190 patients (104 boys/86 girls) were included. When fully inserted to skin level, up to 10.5% of needles do not reach medullary cavity at one and 18.5% at two patient's fingerbreadths distal to tibial tuberosity. The opposite cortical wall is touched or penetrated in 16% and 25%, respectively. Up to 96% of too deep needle tip positions occur in children younger than 24 months, as do too superficial tip positions in 59%.

CONCLUSIONS

Puncture level and needle length have a great influence on potential needle tip positions. Infants and toddlers are at highest risk for malpositioning. Due to relevant growth-related differences in tibial anatomy, an age-related and well-reflected approach is crucial to successfully establish intraosseous access.

## Abstract

BACKGROUND

Malposition of intraosseous needles in pediatric patients is frequently reported. Incorrect needle length and penetration depth related to the puncture site and level are possible causes.

AIMS

Aim of this study was to analyze anatomic dimensions of the proximal tibia in the pediatric population with respect to intraosseous needle placement and needle tip position.

METHODS

Plain lower leg radiographs of children aged from birth to 16 years of age were analyzed. Pretibial tissue layer, cortical bone thickness, and the diameter of the medullary cavity were measured at two different puncture levels. Data were analyzed as descriptive statistics and by polynomial regression plots and set in context to commonly used EZ-IO$^{®}$ needle lengths of 15 and 25 mm.

RESULTS

Radiographs from 190 patients (104 boys/86 girls) were included. When fully inserted to skin level, up to 10.5% of needles do not reach medullary cavity at one and 18.5% at two patient's fingerbreadths distal to tibial tuberosity. The opposite cortical wall is touched or penetrated in 16% and 25%, respectively. Up to 96% of too deep needle tip positions occur in children younger than 24 months, as do too superficial tip positions in 59%.

CONCLUSIONS

Puncture level and needle length have a great influence on potential needle tip positions. Infants and toddlers are at highest risk for malpositioning. Due to relevant growth-related differences in tibial anatomy, an age-related and well-reflected approach is crucial to successfully establish intraosseous access.

## Statistics

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