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Patients with Lemierre syndrome have a high risk of new thromboembolic complications, clinical sequelae and death: an analysis of 712 cases


Valerio, Luca; Zane, Federica; Sacco, Clara; Granziera, Serena; Nicoletti, Tommaso; Russo, Mariaconcetta; Corsi, Gabriele; Holm, Karin; Hotz, Michel-André; Righini, Christian; Karkos, Petros D; Mahmoudpour, Seyed Hamidreza; Kucher, Nils; Verhamme, Peter; Di Nisio, Marcello; Centor, Robert M; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Pecci, Alessandro; Barco, Stefano (2020). Patients with Lemierre syndrome have a high risk of new thromboembolic complications, clinical sequelae and death: an analysis of 712 cases. Journal of Internal Medicine:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lemierre syndrome is characterized by head/neck vein thrombosis and septic embolism usually complicating an acute oropharyngeal bacterial infection in adolescents and young adults. We described the course of Lemierre syndrome in the contemporary era.
METHODS: In our individual-level analysis of 712 patients (2000-2017), we included cases described as Lemierre syndrome if these criteria were met: (i) primary site of bacterial infection in the head/neck; (ii) objectively confirmed local thrombotic complications or septic embolism. The study outcomes were new or recurrent venous thromboembolism or peripheral septic lesions, major bleeding, all-cause death and clinical sequelae.
RESULTS: The median age was 21 (Q1-Q3: 17-33) years, and 295 (41%) were female. At diagnosis, acute thrombosis of head/neck veins was detected in 597 (84%) patients, septic embolism in 582 (82%) and both in 468 (80%). After diagnosis and during in-hospital follow-up, new venous thromboembolism occurred in 34 (5.2%, 95% CI 3.8-7.2%) patients, new peripheral septic lesions became evident in 76 (11.7%; 9.4-14.3%). The rate of either was lower in patients who received anticoagulation (OR: 0.59; 0.36-0.94), higher in those with initial intracranial involvement (OR: 2.35; 1.45-3.80). Major bleeding occurred in 19 patients (2.9%; 1.9-4.5%), and 26 died (4.0%; 2.7-5.8%). Clinical sequelae were reported in 65 (10.4%, 8.2-13.0%) individuals, often consisting of cranial nerve palsy (n = 24) and orthopaedic limitations (n = 19).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Lemierre syndrome were characterized by a substantial risk of new thromboembolic complications and death. This risk was higher in the presence of initial intracranial involvement. One-tenth of survivors suffered major clinical sequelae.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lemierre syndrome is characterized by head/neck vein thrombosis and septic embolism usually complicating an acute oropharyngeal bacterial infection in adolescents and young adults. We described the course of Lemierre syndrome in the contemporary era.
METHODS: In our individual-level analysis of 712 patients (2000-2017), we included cases described as Lemierre syndrome if these criteria were met: (i) primary site of bacterial infection in the head/neck; (ii) objectively confirmed local thrombotic complications or septic embolism. The study outcomes were new or recurrent venous thromboembolism or peripheral septic lesions, major bleeding, all-cause death and clinical sequelae.
RESULTS: The median age was 21 (Q1-Q3: 17-33) years, and 295 (41%) were female. At diagnosis, acute thrombosis of head/neck veins was detected in 597 (84%) patients, septic embolism in 582 (82%) and both in 468 (80%). After diagnosis and during in-hospital follow-up, new venous thromboembolism occurred in 34 (5.2%, 95% CI 3.8-7.2%) patients, new peripheral septic lesions became evident in 76 (11.7%; 9.4-14.3%). The rate of either was lower in patients who received anticoagulation (OR: 0.59; 0.36-0.94), higher in those with initial intracranial involvement (OR: 2.35; 1.45-3.80). Major bleeding occurred in 19 patients (2.9%; 1.9-4.5%), and 26 died (4.0%; 2.7-5.8%). Clinical sequelae were reported in 65 (10.4%, 8.2-13.0%) individuals, often consisting of cranial nerve palsy (n = 24) and orthopaedic limitations (n = 19).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Lemierre syndrome were characterized by a substantial risk of new thromboembolic complications and death. This risk was higher in the presence of initial intracranial involvement. One-tenth of survivors suffered major clinical sequelae.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Angiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Internal Medicine
Language:English
Date:22 May 2020
Deposited On:16 Sep 2020 14:25
Last Modified:17 Sep 2020 20:00
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0954-6820
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.13114
PubMed ID:32445216

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