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Subunit composition of the mammalian serine-palmitoyltransferase defines the spectrum of straight and methyl-branched long-chain bases


Lone, Museer A; Hülsmeier, Andreas J; Saied, Essa M; Karsai, Gergely; Arenz, Christoph; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hornemann, Thorsten (2020). Subunit composition of the mammalian serine-palmitoyltransferase defines the spectrum of straight and methyl-branched long-chain bases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(27):15591-15598.

Abstract

Sphingolipids (SLs) are chemically diverse lipids that have important structural and signaling functions within mammalian cells. SLs are commonly defined by the presence of a long-chain base (LCB) that is normally formed by the conjugation of l-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. This pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent reaction is mediated by the enzyme serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT). However, SPT can also metabolize other acyl-CoAs, in the range of C14 to C18, forming a variety of LCBs that differ by structure and function. Mammalian SPT consists of three core subunits: SPTLC1, SPTLC2, and SPTLC3. Whereas SPTLC1 and SPTLC2 are ubiquitously expressed, SPTLC3 expression is restricted to certain tissues only. The influence of the individual subunits on enzyme activity is not clear. Using cell models deficient in SPTLC1, SPTLC2, and SPTLC3, we investigated the role of each subunit on enzyme activity and the LCB product spectrum. We showed that SPTLC1 is essential for activity, whereas SPTLC2 and SPTLC3 are partly redundant but differ in their enzymatic properties. SPTLC1 in combination with SPTLC2 specifically formed C18, C19, and C20 LCBs while the combination of SPTLC1 and SPTLC3 yielded a broader product spectrum. We identified anteiso-branched-C18 SO (meC18SO) as the primary product of the SPTLC3 reaction. The meC18SO was synthesized from anteiso-methyl-palmitate, in turn synthesized from a precursor metabolite generated in the isoleucine catabolic pathway. The meC18SO is metabolized to ceramides and complex SLs and is a constituent of human low- and high-density lipoproteins.

Abstract

Sphingolipids (SLs) are chemically diverse lipids that have important structural and signaling functions within mammalian cells. SLs are commonly defined by the presence of a long-chain base (LCB) that is normally formed by the conjugation of l-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. This pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent reaction is mediated by the enzyme serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT). However, SPT can also metabolize other acyl-CoAs, in the range of C14 to C18, forming a variety of LCBs that differ by structure and function. Mammalian SPT consists of three core subunits: SPTLC1, SPTLC2, and SPTLC3. Whereas SPTLC1 and SPTLC2 are ubiquitously expressed, SPTLC3 expression is restricted to certain tissues only. The influence of the individual subunits on enzyme activity is not clear. Using cell models deficient in SPTLC1, SPTLC2, and SPTLC3, we investigated the role of each subunit on enzyme activity and the LCB product spectrum. We showed that SPTLC1 is essential for activity, whereas SPTLC2 and SPTLC3 are partly redundant but differ in their enzymatic properties. SPTLC1 in combination with SPTLC2 specifically formed C18, C19, and C20 LCBs while the combination of SPTLC1 and SPTLC3 yielded a broader product spectrum. We identified anteiso-branched-C18 SO (meC18SO) as the primary product of the SPTLC3 reaction. The meC18SO was synthesized from anteiso-methyl-palmitate, in turn synthesized from a precursor metabolite generated in the isoleucine catabolic pathway. The meC18SO is metabolized to ceramides and complex SLs and is a constituent of human low- and high-density lipoproteins.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
540 Chemistry
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:7 July 2020
Deposited On:18 Sep 2020 05:36
Last Modified:19 Sep 2020 20:00
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002391117
PubMed ID:32576697

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