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Fusion of preinterventional MR imaging with liver perfusion CT after RFA of hepatocellular carcinoma: early quantitative prediction of local recurrence


Kobe, Adrian; Kindler, Yanick; Klotz, Ernst; Puippe, Gilbert; Messmer, Florian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Pfammatter, Thomas (2021). Fusion of preinterventional MR imaging with liver perfusion CT after RFA of hepatocellular carcinoma: early quantitative prediction of local recurrence. Investigative Radiology, 56(3):188-196.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fusion of pretreatment magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with posttreatment perfusion-CT (P-CT) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and to determine treatment success in an objective, quantitative way.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, 39 patients (78.4% male; mean age 68.2 ± 8.5 years) with a total of 43 HCCs, who underwent RFA at our institution and had diagnostic pre-RFA MR imaging and post-RFA P-CT, were included in the study. Post-RFA P-CT was performed within 24 hours after RFA. In a first step, the pre-RFA MR imaging, depicting the HCC, was registered onto the post-RFA P-CT using nonrigid image registration. After image registration, the MR data were reloaded jointly with the calculated perfusion parameter volumes into the perfusion application for quantitative analysis. A 3-dimensional volume of interest was drawn around the HCC and the ablation zone; both outlines were automatically projected onto all perfusion maps. Resulting perfusion values (normalized peak enhancement [NPE, %]; arterial liver perfusion [ALP, in mL/min/100 mL]; BF [blood flow, mL/100 mL/min]; and blood volume [BV, mL/100 mL]) and histogram data were recorded. Local tumor recurrence was defined in follow-up imaging according to the EASL guidelines.
RESULTS: Image registration of MR imaging and CT data was successful in 37 patients (94.9%). Local tumor recurrence was observed in 5 HCCs (12%). In the local tumor recurrence group (LTR-group), HCC size was significantly larger (22.7 ± 3.9 cm vs 17.8 ± 5.3 cm, P = 0.035) and the ablation zone was significantly smaller (29.8 ± 6.9 cm vs 39.3 ± 6.8 cm, P = 0.014) compared with the no-local tumor recurrence group (no-LTR group). The differences (ablation zone - tumor) of the perfusion parameters NPE, ALP, BF, and BV significantly differed between the 2 groups (all P's < 0.005). Especially, the difference (ablation zone - tumor) of NPE and ALP, with a cutoff value of zero, accurately differentiated between LTR or no-LTR in all cases. A negative difference of these perfusion parameters identified local tumor recurrence in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Image registration of pre-RFA MR imaging onto post-RFA P-CT is feasible and allows to predict local tumor recurrence within 24 hours after RFA in an objective, quantitative manner and with excellent accuracy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fusion of pretreatment magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with posttreatment perfusion-CT (P-CT) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and to determine treatment success in an objective, quantitative way.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, 39 patients (78.4% male; mean age 68.2 ± 8.5 years) with a total of 43 HCCs, who underwent RFA at our institution and had diagnostic pre-RFA MR imaging and post-RFA P-CT, were included in the study. Post-RFA P-CT was performed within 24 hours after RFA. In a first step, the pre-RFA MR imaging, depicting the HCC, was registered onto the post-RFA P-CT using nonrigid image registration. After image registration, the MR data were reloaded jointly with the calculated perfusion parameter volumes into the perfusion application for quantitative analysis. A 3-dimensional volume of interest was drawn around the HCC and the ablation zone; both outlines were automatically projected onto all perfusion maps. Resulting perfusion values (normalized peak enhancement [NPE, %]; arterial liver perfusion [ALP, in mL/min/100 mL]; BF [blood flow, mL/100 mL/min]; and blood volume [BV, mL/100 mL]) and histogram data were recorded. Local tumor recurrence was defined in follow-up imaging according to the EASL guidelines.
RESULTS: Image registration of MR imaging and CT data was successful in 37 patients (94.9%). Local tumor recurrence was observed in 5 HCCs (12%). In the local tumor recurrence group (LTR-group), HCC size was significantly larger (22.7 ± 3.9 cm vs 17.8 ± 5.3 cm, P = 0.035) and the ablation zone was significantly smaller (29.8 ± 6.9 cm vs 39.3 ± 6.8 cm, P = 0.014) compared with the no-local tumor recurrence group (no-LTR group). The differences (ablation zone - tumor) of the perfusion parameters NPE, ALP, BF, and BV significantly differed between the 2 groups (all P's < 0.005). Especially, the difference (ablation zone - tumor) of NPE and ALP, with a cutoff value of zero, accurately differentiated between LTR or no-LTR in all cases. A negative difference of these perfusion parameters identified local tumor recurrence in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Image registration of pre-RFA MR imaging onto post-RFA P-CT is feasible and allows to predict local tumor recurrence within 24 hours after RFA in an objective, quantitative manner and with excellent accuracy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:14 September 2021
Deposited On:28 Sep 2020 14:52
Last Modified:19 Feb 2021 08:39
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0020-9996
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000726
PubMed ID:32932379

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