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Delayed prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin increases the risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective analysis


Brandi, Giovanna; Schmidlin, Adrian; Klinzing, Stephanie; Schüpbach, Reto; Unseld, Simone; Pagnamenta, Alberto (2020). Delayed prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin increases the risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective analysis. Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy, 52(1):28-33.

Abstract

Background
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized complication in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, no standard exists for optimal timing or a pharmacological agent for VTE prophylaxis (pharmacological thromboprophylaxis – PTP) in patients with TBI. PTP is often delayed out of fear of causing extension of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study was to report the frequency of VTE and ICH progression after initiation of PTP with a continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin in patients with moderate to severe TBI, and to identify risk factors associated with development of VTE.

Methods
In this single-center retrospective study, patients with moderate to severe TBI admitted to the ICU of a Swiss Level I Trauma Center over a three-year period were analyzed.

Results
In 23 (13%) of the 177 patients included in the study a VTE episode occurred during the hospital stay. ICH progression after initiation of PTP occurred in 7 (4%) patients. In a multivariable logistic regression model, only the timing of initiation of PTP was identified as an independent predictor of VTE.

Conclusions
In this study population, the risk of developing VTE increased with the delay of initiation of a pharmacological VTE prophylaxis, while ICH progression after initiation of PTP was a rare event.

Abstract

Background
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized complication in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, no standard exists for optimal timing or a pharmacological agent for VTE prophylaxis (pharmacological thromboprophylaxis – PTP) in patients with TBI. PTP is often delayed out of fear of causing extension of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study was to report the frequency of VTE and ICH progression after initiation of PTP with a continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin in patients with moderate to severe TBI, and to identify risk factors associated with development of VTE.

Methods
In this single-center retrospective study, patients with moderate to severe TBI admitted to the ICU of a Swiss Level I Trauma Center over a three-year period were analyzed.

Results
In 23 (13%) of the 177 patients included in the study a VTE episode occurred during the hospital stay. ICH progression after initiation of PTP occurred in 7 (4%) patients. In a multivariable logistic regression model, only the timing of initiation of PTP was identified as an independent predictor of VTE.

Conclusions
In this study population, the risk of developing VTE increased with the delay of initiation of a pharmacological VTE prophylaxis, while ICH progression after initiation of PTP was a rare event.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Intensive Care Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Health Sciences > Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Uncontrolled Keywords:Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 January 2020
Deposited On:30 Sep 2020 13:34
Last Modified:01 Oct 2020 20:00
Publisher:Wydawnictwo Via Medica
ISSN:1642-5758
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.5114/ait.2020.93395
PubMed ID:32191827

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