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How female × male and male × male interactions influence competitive fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster


Lüpold, Stefan; Reil, Jonathan Bradley; Manier, Mollie K; Zeender, Valérian; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott (2020). How female × male and male × male interactions influence competitive fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution Letters, 4(5):416-429.

Abstract

How males and females contribute to joint reproductive success has been a long-standing question in sexual selection. Under postcopulatory sexual selection (PSS), paternity success is predicted to derive from complex interactions among females engaging in cryptic female choice and males engaging in sperm competition. Such interactions have been identified as potential sources of genetic variation in sexually selected traits but are also expected to inhibit trait diversification. To date, studies of interactions between females and competing males have focused almost exclusively on genotypes and not phenotypic variation in sexually selected traits. Here, we characterize within- and between-sex interactions in Drosophila melanogaster using isogenic lines with heritable variation in both male and female traits known to influence competitive fertilization. We found surprisingly few genotypic interaction effects on various stages of PSS such as female remating interval, copulation duration, sperm transfer, or sperm storage. Only the timing of female sperm ejection depended on female × male genotypic interactions. By contrast, several reproductive events, including sperm transfer, female sperm ejection and sperm storage, were explained by two- and three-way interactions among sex-specific phenotypes. We also documented complex interactions between the lengths of competing males’ sperm and the female seminal receptacle, which are known to have experienced rapid female-male co-diversification. Our results highlight the non-independence of sperm competition and cryptic female choice and demonstrate that complex interactions between the sexes do not limit the ability of multivariate systems to respond to directional sexual selection.

Abstract

How males and females contribute to joint reproductive success has been a long-standing question in sexual selection. Under postcopulatory sexual selection (PSS), paternity success is predicted to derive from complex interactions among females engaging in cryptic female choice and males engaging in sperm competition. Such interactions have been identified as potential sources of genetic variation in sexually selected traits but are also expected to inhibit trait diversification. To date, studies of interactions between females and competing males have focused almost exclusively on genotypes and not phenotypic variation in sexually selected traits. Here, we characterize within- and between-sex interactions in Drosophila melanogaster using isogenic lines with heritable variation in both male and female traits known to influence competitive fertilization. We found surprisingly few genotypic interaction effects on various stages of PSS such as female remating interval, copulation duration, sperm transfer, or sperm storage. Only the timing of female sperm ejection depended on female × male genotypic interactions. By contrast, several reproductive events, including sperm transfer, female sperm ejection and sperm storage, were explained by two- and three-way interactions among sex-specific phenotypes. We also documented complex interactions between the lengths of competing males’ sperm and the female seminal receptacle, which are known to have experienced rapid female-male co-diversification. Our results highlight the non-independence of sperm competition and cryptic female choice and demonstrate that complex interactions between the sexes do not limit the ability of multivariate systems to respond to directional sexual selection.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cryptic female choice; ejaculate‐female interactions; female reproductive tract; genetic compatibility; postcopulatory sexual selection; sperm competition; trait diversification
Language:English
Date:October 2020
Deposited On:07 Oct 2020 08:57
Last Modified:01 Nov 2020 17:11
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:2056-3744
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/evl3.193
PubMed ID:33014418

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