The involvement of Septate Junctions (SJs) in critical cellular functions that extend beyond their role as diffusion barriers in the epithelia and the nervous system has made the fruit fly an ideal model for the study of human diseases associated with impaired Tight Junction (TJ) function. In this study, we summarized current knowledge of the Drosophila melanogaster SJ‐related proteins, focusing on their unconventional functions. Additionally, we sought to identify human orthologs of the corresponding genes as well as protein domain families. The systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Scopus databases using relevant key terms. Orthologs were predicted using the DIOPT tool and aligned protein regions were determined from the Pfam database. 3‐D models of the smooth SJ proteins were built on the Phyre2 and DMPFold protein structure prediction servers. A total of 30 proteins were identified as relatives to the SJ cellular structure. Key roles of these proteins, mainly in the regulation of morphogenetic events and cellular signalling, were highlighted. The investigation of protein domain families revealed that the SJ‐related proteins contain conserved domains that are required not only for cell‐cell interactions and cell polarity but also for cellular signalling and immunity. DIOPT analysis of orthologs identified novel human genes as putative functional homologs of the fruit fly SJ genes. A gap in our knowledge was identified regarding the domains that occur in the proteins encoded by eight SJ‐associated genes. Future investigation of these domains is needed to provide functional information.