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Methylation Profile of X-Chromosome-Related Genes in Male Breast Cancer


Abstract

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) has been described to play a prominent role in male breast cancer (MBC). It maps on chromosome X, and recent reports indicate that X-chromosome polysomy is frequent in MBC. Since the response to anti-androgen therapy may depend on AR polysomy and on its overexpression similarly to prostate cancer, the aim of the present study was to investigate the DNA methylation level of AR and its coregulators, especially those mapped on the X-chromosome, that may influence the activity of AR in MBC. Methods: The DNA methylation level of AR, MAGEA2, MAGEA11, MAGEC1, MAGEC2, FLNA, HDAC6, and UXT, mapped on the X-chromosome, was evaluated by quantitative bisulfite-NGS. Bioinformatic analysis was performed in a Galaxy Project environment using BWA-METH, MethylDackel, and Methylation Plotter tools. The study population consisted of MBC (41 cases) compared with gynecomastia (17 cases). Results:MAGEA family members, especially MAGEA2, MAGEA11, MAGEC, and UXT and HDAC6 showed hypomethylation of several CpGs, reaching statistical significance by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.01) in MBC when compared to gynecomastia. AR showed almost no methylation at all. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that MAGEA family members mapped on the X-chromosome and coregulators of AR are hypomethylated in MBC. This may lead to their overexpression, enhancing AR activity.

Abstract

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) has been described to play a prominent role in male breast cancer (MBC). It maps on chromosome X, and recent reports indicate that X-chromosome polysomy is frequent in MBC. Since the response to anti-androgen therapy may depend on AR polysomy and on its overexpression similarly to prostate cancer, the aim of the present study was to investigate the DNA methylation level of AR and its coregulators, especially those mapped on the X-chromosome, that may influence the activity of AR in MBC. Methods: The DNA methylation level of AR, MAGEA2, MAGEA11, MAGEC1, MAGEC2, FLNA, HDAC6, and UXT, mapped on the X-chromosome, was evaluated by quantitative bisulfite-NGS. Bioinformatic analysis was performed in a Galaxy Project environment using BWA-METH, MethylDackel, and Methylation Plotter tools. The study population consisted of MBC (41 cases) compared with gynecomastia (17 cases). Results:MAGEA family members, especially MAGEA2, MAGEA11, MAGEC, and UXT and HDAC6 showed hypomethylation of several CpGs, reaching statistical significance by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.01) in MBC when compared to gynecomastia. AR showed almost no methylation at all. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that MAGEA family members mapped on the X-chromosome and coregulators of AR are hypomethylated in MBC. This may lead to their overexpression, enhancing AR activity.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Language:English
Date:2020
Deposited On:11 Oct 2020 10:59
Last Modified:12 Oct 2020 20:00
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:2234-943X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00784
PubMed ID:32626651

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