Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

The challenge of forming a fuzzy core in Jupiter


Müller, Simon; Helled, Ravit; Cumming, Andrew (2020). The challenge of forming a fuzzy core in Jupiter. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 638:A121.

Abstract

Recent structure models of Jupiter that match Juno gravity data suggest that the planet harbours an extended region in its deep interior that is enriched with heavy elements: a so-called dilute or fuzzy core. This finding raises the question of what possible formation pathways could have lead to such a structure. We modelled Jupiter’s formation and long-term evolution, starting at late-stage formation before runaway gas accretion. The formation scenarios we considered include both primordial composition gradients, as well as gradients that are built as proto-Jupiter rapidly acquires its gaseous envelope. We then followed Jupiter’s evolution as it cools down and contracts, with a particular focus on the energy and material transport in the interior. We find that none of the scenarios we consider lead to a fuzzy core that is compatible with interior structure models. In all the cases, most of Jupiter’s envelope becomes convective and fully mixed after a few million years at most. This is true even when we considered a case where the gas accretion leads to a cold planet, and large amounts of heavy elements are accreted. We therefore conclude that it is very challenging to explain Jupiter’s dilute core from standard formation models. We suggest that future works should consider more complex formation pathways as well as the modelling of additional physical processes that could lead to Jupiter’s current-state internal structure.

Abstract

Recent structure models of Jupiter that match Juno gravity data suggest that the planet harbours an extended region in its deep interior that is enriched with heavy elements: a so-called dilute or fuzzy core. This finding raises the question of what possible formation pathways could have lead to such a structure. We modelled Jupiter’s formation and long-term evolution, starting at late-stage formation before runaway gas accretion. The formation scenarios we considered include both primordial composition gradients, as well as gradients that are built as proto-Jupiter rapidly acquires its gaseous envelope. We then followed Jupiter’s evolution as it cools down and contracts, with a particular focus on the energy and material transport in the interior. We find that none of the scenarios we consider lead to a fuzzy core that is compatible with interior structure models. In all the cases, most of Jupiter’s envelope becomes convective and fully mixed after a few million years at most. This is true even when we considered a case where the gas accretion leads to a cold planet, and large amounts of heavy elements are accreted. We therefore conclude that it is very challenging to explain Jupiter’s dilute core from standard formation models. We suggest that future works should consider more complex formation pathways as well as the modelling of additional physical processes that could lead to Jupiter’s current-state internal structure.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
2 citations in Web of Science®
2 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

0 downloads since deposited on 15 Feb 2021
0 downloads since 12 months

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Physical Sciences > Space and Planetary Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Language:English
Date:23 June 2020
Deposited On:15 Feb 2021 09:19
Last Modified:16 Feb 2021 21:00
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201937376

Download

Hybrid Open Access

Download PDF  'The challenge of forming a fuzzy core in Jupiter'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 745kB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)