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The innate immune response to infection induces erythropoietin-dependent replenishment of the dendritic cell compartment


Einwächter, Henrik; Heiseke, Alexander; Schlitzer, Andreas; Gasteiger, Georg; Adler, Heiko; Voehringer, David; Manz, Markus G; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Dölken, Lars; Koszinowski, Ulrich H; Sparwasser, Tim; Reindl, Wolfgang; Jordan, Stefan (2020). The innate immune response to infection induces erythropoietin-dependent replenishment of the dendritic cell compartment. Frontiers in Immunology, 11:1627.

Abstract

Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in the adaptive immune response due to their ability to present antigens and stimulate naïve T cells. Many bacteria and viruses can efficiently target DC, resulting in impairment of their immunostimulatory function or elimination. Hence, the DC compartment requires replenishment following infection to ensure continued operational readiness of the adaptive immune system. Here, we investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms of inflammation-induced DC generation. We found that infection with viral and bacterial pathogens as well as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligation with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) expanded an erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent TER119$^{+}$CD11a$^{+}$ cell population in the spleen that had the capacity to differentiate into TER119$^{+}$CD11c$^{high}$ and TER119$^{-}$CD11c$^{high}$ cells both in vitro and in vivo. TER119$^{+}$CD11c$^{high}$ cells contributed to the conventional DC pool in the spleen and specifically increased in lymph nodes draining the site of local inflammation. Our results reveal a so far undescribed inflammatory EPO-dependent pathway of DC differentiation and establish a mechanistic link between innate immune recognition of potential immunosuppressive pathogens and the maintenance of the DC pool during and after infection.

Abstract

Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in the adaptive immune response due to their ability to present antigens and stimulate naïve T cells. Many bacteria and viruses can efficiently target DC, resulting in impairment of their immunostimulatory function or elimination. Hence, the DC compartment requires replenishment following infection to ensure continued operational readiness of the adaptive immune system. Here, we investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms of inflammation-induced DC generation. We found that infection with viral and bacterial pathogens as well as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligation with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) expanded an erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent TER119$^{+}$CD11a$^{+}$ cell population in the spleen that had the capacity to differentiate into TER119$^{+}$CD11c$^{high}$ and TER119$^{-}$CD11c$^{high}$ cells both in vitro and in vivo. TER119$^{+}$CD11c$^{high}$ cells contributed to the conventional DC pool in the spleen and specifically increased in lymph nodes draining the site of local inflammation. Our results reveal a so far undescribed inflammatory EPO-dependent pathway of DC differentiation and establish a mechanistic link between innate immune recognition of potential immunosuppressive pathogens and the maintenance of the DC pool during and after infection.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Oncology and Hematology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Language:English
Date:2020
Deposited On:19 Oct 2020 16:34
Last Modified:01 Nov 2020 17:13
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1664-3224
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01627
PubMed ID:32849551

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