Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Dirofilarioses in cats: European guidelines from the ABCD on prevention and management


Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Tasker, Séverine; Hartmann, Katrin; Belák, Sándor; Addie, Diane; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hosie, Margaret; Lloret, Albert; Marsilio, Fulvio; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin (2020). Dirofilarioses in cats: European guidelines from the ABCD on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 22(5):442-451.

Abstract

OVERVIEW: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most important filarial worms, causing heartworm disease and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively. D repens is currently considered an emerging zoonotic agent in Europe.
LIFE CYCLE AND INFECTION: Filarial worms infect mainly dogs, but also cats, ferrets, wild carnivores and humans. The life cycle involves an intermediate mosquito host. Compared with dogs, cats are imperfect hosts for dirofilarial worms. After inoculation, only a low number of L3 larvae develop to the adult stage in a small percentage of cats. Heartworm disease in cats may be associated with severe pulmonary thromboembolism and an eosinophilic inflammatory response in the lungs, potentially leading to sudden death. Otherwise self-cure occurs in most cases after 18-48 months. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis may present as subcutaneous nodules or dermatitis.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: Diagnosis in cats is more difficult compared with dogs and needs a multistep approach (antigen and antibody tests, as well as diagnostic imaging). Cats with acute heartworm disease require stabilisation within an intensive care unit. Cats with respiratory signs or suggestive radiographic changes should receive prednisolone and follow-up with a similar multistep approach. Adulticidal therapy is not safe in cats.
PREVENTION: In endemic areas cats should receive year-round chemoprophylaxis from 2 months of age.

Abstract

OVERVIEW: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most important filarial worms, causing heartworm disease and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively. D repens is currently considered an emerging zoonotic agent in Europe.
LIFE CYCLE AND INFECTION: Filarial worms infect mainly dogs, but also cats, ferrets, wild carnivores and humans. The life cycle involves an intermediate mosquito host. Compared with dogs, cats are imperfect hosts for dirofilarial worms. After inoculation, only a low number of L3 larvae develop to the adult stage in a small percentage of cats. Heartworm disease in cats may be associated with severe pulmonary thromboembolism and an eosinophilic inflammatory response in the lungs, potentially leading to sudden death. Otherwise self-cure occurs in most cases after 18-48 months. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis may present as subcutaneous nodules or dermatitis.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: Diagnosis in cats is more difficult compared with dogs and needs a multistep approach (antigen and antibody tests, as well as diagnostic imaging). Cats with acute heartworm disease require stabilisation within an intensive care unit. Cats with respiratory signs or suggestive radiographic changes should receive prednisolone and follow-up with a similar multistep approach. Adulticidal therapy is not safe in cats.
PREVENTION: In endemic areas cats should receive year-round chemoprophylaxis from 2 months of age.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
1 citation in Web of Science®
2 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Small Animals
Language:English
Date:May 2020
Deposited On:20 Oct 2020 16:36
Last Modified:20 Oct 2020 16:38
Publisher:Sage Publications
ISSN:1098-612X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X20917601
PubMed ID:32326862

Download

Full text not available from this repository.
View at publisher

Get full-text in a library