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Prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity across occupations in Switzerland and its correlation with suicide mortality: results from the Swiss National Cohort (1990-2014)


Schmid, M; Michaud, L; Bovio, N; Guseva Canu, I; Puhan, Milo A; et al (2020). Prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity across occupations in Switzerland and its correlation with suicide mortality: results from the Swiss National Cohort (1990-2014). BMC Psychiatry, 20(1):324.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major and complex public health problem. In Switzerland, suicide accounts for about 1000 deaths yearly and is the fourth leading cause of mortality. The first nationwide Swiss study of suicides identified eight male and four female occupations with statistically significant excess of suicide compared to the general Swiss population. Working time, self-employer status, low socio-economic status and low skill level required for occupation were associated with increase in suicide risk. Presently, we aim to compare the distribution of suicide risk across occupations with the prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity in Swiss working-aged adults. We hypothesized that some diseases would cluster in particular occupations, indicating potential work-relatedness of suicides found in these occupations.
METHODS: We used the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) and included 10575 males and 2756 females deceased by suicide between 1990 and 2014. We estimated the prevalence of 16 categories of concomitant diseases in each occupation, using national mortality records, and assessed the homogeneity of diseases distribution across occupations. For diseases, which prevalence varied significantly across occupations, we analyzed the correlation with the distribution of suicide risk, estimated as the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide.
RESULTS: Mental and behavioral disorders were the most commonly reported concomitant diseases in our population. In men, the prevalence of these disorders and more specifically, the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders, and of psychotic disorders varied significantly across occupations and was correlated with the SMR of suicide. The prevalence of malignant neoplasms and the prevalence of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue also varied significantly across male occupations, while in women, such a variation was observed for neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior and diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, without being correlated with the SMR of suicide.
CONCLUSION: Some of the identified morbidities can be occupation-related and could negatively affect the working capacity and the employability, which in turn could be related to the suicide. Disentangling concomitant diseases according to their work-relatedness and relationship with the suicide risk is important for identifying occupation-related suicides, understanding their characteristics, and developing appropriated interventions for their prevention.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major and complex public health problem. In Switzerland, suicide accounts for about 1000 deaths yearly and is the fourth leading cause of mortality. The first nationwide Swiss study of suicides identified eight male and four female occupations with statistically significant excess of suicide compared to the general Swiss population. Working time, self-employer status, low socio-economic status and low skill level required for occupation were associated with increase in suicide risk. Presently, we aim to compare the distribution of suicide risk across occupations with the prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity in Swiss working-aged adults. We hypothesized that some diseases would cluster in particular occupations, indicating potential work-relatedness of suicides found in these occupations.
METHODS: We used the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) and included 10575 males and 2756 females deceased by suicide between 1990 and 2014. We estimated the prevalence of 16 categories of concomitant diseases in each occupation, using national mortality records, and assessed the homogeneity of diseases distribution across occupations. For diseases, which prevalence varied significantly across occupations, we analyzed the correlation with the distribution of suicide risk, estimated as the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide.
RESULTS: Mental and behavioral disorders were the most commonly reported concomitant diseases in our population. In men, the prevalence of these disorders and more specifically, the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders, and of psychotic disorders varied significantly across occupations and was correlated with the SMR of suicide. The prevalence of malignant neoplasms and the prevalence of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue also varied significantly across male occupations, while in women, such a variation was observed for neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior and diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, without being correlated with the SMR of suicide.
CONCLUSION: Some of the identified morbidities can be occupation-related and could negatively affect the working capacity and the employability, which in turn could be related to the suicide. Disentangling concomitant diseases according to their work-relatedness and relationship with the suicide risk is important for identifying occupation-related suicides, understanding their characteristics, and developing appropriated interventions for their prevention.

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Additional indexing

Contributors:Swiss National Cohort (SNC)
Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Psychiatry and Mental Health
Language:English
Date:22 June 2020
Deposited On:26 Oct 2020 16:39
Last Modified:04 Feb 2021 14:34
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-244X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02733-7
PubMed ID:32571249

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