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Synthesis and Structure Insights of Two Novel Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Candidates Based on (E)-N′-[(Heteroaryl)methylene]adamantane-1-carbohydrazides


Al-Wahaibi, Lamya H; Alvarez, Natalia; Blacque, Olivier; Veiga, Nicolás; Al-Mutairi, Aamal A; El-Emam, Ali A (2020). Synthesis and Structure Insights of Two Novel Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Candidates Based on (E)-N′-[(Heteroaryl)methylene]adamantane-1-carbohydrazides. Molecules, 25(8):1934.

Abstract

Two new N′-heteroarylidene-1-carbohydrazide derivatives, namely; E-N′-[(pyridine-3-yl)methylidene]adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (1) and E-N′-[(5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)methylidene]adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (2), were produced via condensation of adamantane-1-carbohydrazide with the appropriate heterocyclic aldehyde. Both compounds were chemically and structurally characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The study was complemented with density functional theory calculations (DFT). The results show an asymmetrical charge distribution in both compounds, with the electron density accumulated around the nitrogen and oxygen atoms, leaving the positive charge surrounding the N-H and C-H bonds in the hydrazine group. Consequently, the molecules stack in an antiparallel fashion in the crystalline state, although the contribution of the polar contacts to the stability of the lattice is different for 1 (18%) and 2 (42%). This difference affects the density and symmetry of their crystal structures. Both molecules show intense UV-Vis light absorption in the range 200–350 nm (1) and 200–500 nm (2), brought about by π → π* electronic transitions. The electron density difference maps (EDDM) revealed that during light absorption, the electron density flows within the π-delocalized system, among the pyridyl/thiophene ring, the nitro group, and the N′-methyleneacetohydrazide moiety. Interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 constitute broad-spectrum antibacterial candidates, displaying potent antibacterial activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values around 0.5–2.0 μg/mL. They also show weak or moderate antifungal activity against the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

Abstract

Two new N′-heteroarylidene-1-carbohydrazide derivatives, namely; E-N′-[(pyridine-3-yl)methylidene]adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (1) and E-N′-[(5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)methylidene]adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (2), were produced via condensation of adamantane-1-carbohydrazide with the appropriate heterocyclic aldehyde. Both compounds were chemically and structurally characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The study was complemented with density functional theory calculations (DFT). The results show an asymmetrical charge distribution in both compounds, with the electron density accumulated around the nitrogen and oxygen atoms, leaving the positive charge surrounding the N-H and C-H bonds in the hydrazine group. Consequently, the molecules stack in an antiparallel fashion in the crystalline state, although the contribution of the polar contacts to the stability of the lattice is different for 1 (18%) and 2 (42%). This difference affects the density and symmetry of their crystal structures. Both molecules show intense UV-Vis light absorption in the range 200–350 nm (1) and 200–500 nm (2), brought about by π → π* electronic transitions. The electron density difference maps (EDDM) revealed that during light absorption, the electron density flows within the π-delocalized system, among the pyridyl/thiophene ring, the nitro group, and the N′-methyleneacetohydrazide moiety. Interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 constitute broad-spectrum antibacterial candidates, displaying potent antibacterial activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values around 0.5–2.0 μg/mL. They also show weak or moderate antifungal activity against the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Analytical Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Chemistry (miscellaneous)
Life Sciences > Molecular Medicine
Life Sciences > Pharmaceutical Science
Life Sciences > Drug Discovery
Physical Sciences > Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Organic Chemistry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Organic Chemistry
Language:English
Date:22 April 2020
Deposited On:27 Oct 2020 08:29
Last Modified:27 Nov 2020 07:34
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1420-3049
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081934

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