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On the limitations of echo planar 4D flow MRI


Dillinger, Hannes; Walheim, Jonas; Kozerke, Sebastian (2020). On the limitations of echo planar 4D flow MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 84(4):1806-1816.

Abstract

Purpose
To compare EPI and GRE readout in high‐flow velocity regimes and evaluate their impact on measurement accuracy in silico and in vitro.
Theory and Methods
Phase‐contrast sequences for EPI and GRE were simulated using CFD velocity data to assess displacement artifacts as well as effective spatial resolution. In silico findings were validated experimentally using a steady flow phantom.
Results
For EPI factor 5 and simulated stenotic flow with peak velocity of 2.2 murn:x-wiley:07403194:media:mrm28236:mrm28236-math-0004, displacement artifacts resulted in misregistration of 7.3 mm at echo time and the effective resolution was locally reduced by factors 5 and 8 compared to GRE for flow along phase and frequency encoding directions, respectively. In vitro, a maximum velocity difference between EPI factor 5 and GRE of 0.97 murn:x-wiley:07403194:media:mrm28236:mrm28236-math-0005 was found.
Conclusions
Four‐dimensional flow MRI using EPI readout results not only in considerable velocity misregistration but also in spatially varying degradation of resolution. The proposed work indicates that EPI is inferior to standard GRE for 4D flow MRI.

Abstract

Purpose
To compare EPI and GRE readout in high‐flow velocity regimes and evaluate their impact on measurement accuracy in silico and in vitro.
Theory and Methods
Phase‐contrast sequences for EPI and GRE were simulated using CFD velocity data to assess displacement artifacts as well as effective spatial resolution. In silico findings were validated experimentally using a steady flow phantom.
Results
For EPI factor 5 and simulated stenotic flow with peak velocity of 2.2 murn:x-wiley:07403194:media:mrm28236:mrm28236-math-0004, displacement artifacts resulted in misregistration of 7.3 mm at echo time and the effective resolution was locally reduced by factors 5 and 8 compared to GRE for flow along phase and frequency encoding directions, respectively. In vitro, a maximum velocity difference between EPI factor 5 and GRE of 0.97 murn:x-wiley:07403194:media:mrm28236:mrm28236-math-0005 was found.
Conclusions
Four‐dimensional flow MRI using EPI readout results not only in considerable velocity misregistration but also in spatially varying degradation of resolution. The proposed work indicates that EPI is inferior to standard GRE for 4D flow MRI.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Biomedical Engineering
Dewey Decimal Classification:170 Ethics
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging
Uncontrolled Keywords:Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Language:English
Date:1 October 2020
Deposited On:30 Oct 2020 13:44
Last Modified:31 Oct 2020 21:00
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0740-3194
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28236
PubMed ID:32212352

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