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Accuracy of remote diagnoses using intraoral scans captured in approximate true color: a pilot and validation study in teledentistry


Steinmeier, Sabrina; Wiedemeier, Daniel; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Mühlemann, Sven (2020). Accuracy of remote diagnoses using intraoral scans captured in approximate true color: a pilot and validation study in teledentistry. BMC Oral Health, 20:266.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Intraoral scans (IOS) provide three-dimensional images with approximate true colors representing a possible tool in teledentistry for remote examination. The aim of the present cross-sectional validation study was, therefore, to evaluate the levels of agreement between remote diagnoses derived from IOS and diagnoses based on clinical examinations for assessing dental and periodontal conditions.
METHODS
The test sample comprised 10 patients representing different clinical conditions. Following the acquisition of IOS (Trios, 3Shape), a full-mouth dental and periodontal examination was done and periapical radiographs were taken. Ten dentists were asked to perform dental and periodontal scorings for each of the ten patients on a tablet computer presenting the IOS. Scores included diagnosis of gingivitis/periodontitis, and evaluated presence as well as amount of plaque and calculus, and presence of teeth exhibiting gingival recession, furcation involvement, erosion, tooth wear, stain, and non-carious cervical lesion, as well as presence of decayed, filled, and crowned teeth and implants. In a second round of assessments, the periapical radiographs were provided and the dentists were able to change the scores. The time for the remote assessment was recorded. The agreement between remote and clinical scorings (reference) was then analyzed descriptively.
RESULTS
The mean time for the tele assessment was 3.17 min and the additional consultation of the radiographs accounted for another 1.48 min. The sensitivity and specificity values were 0.61 and 0.39 for gingivitis and 0.67 and 0.33 for periodontitis, with no relevant changes when radiographs were provided for the diagnosis of periodontitis (0.72 and 0.28). The agreement for dichotomized dental and periodontal indices ranged between 78 and 95%. With the provision of radiographs, the remote examiners were able to detect existing filled teeth, crowned teeth, and implants, whereas the detection of decayed teeth (70%) was not improved.
CONCLUSIONS
The remote examination using IOS was effective in detecting dental findings, whereas periodontal conditions could not be assessed with the same accuracy. Still, remote assessment of IOS would allow a time-efficient screening and triage of patients. Improvement of the image quality of IOS may further allow to increase the accuracy of remote assessments in dentistry. According to the Swiss Regulation this investigation is not a clinical trial and therefore no registration in a WHO-registry is needed.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Intraoral scans (IOS) provide three-dimensional images with approximate true colors representing a possible tool in teledentistry for remote examination. The aim of the present cross-sectional validation study was, therefore, to evaluate the levels of agreement between remote diagnoses derived from IOS and diagnoses based on clinical examinations for assessing dental and periodontal conditions.
METHODS
The test sample comprised 10 patients representing different clinical conditions. Following the acquisition of IOS (Trios, 3Shape), a full-mouth dental and periodontal examination was done and periapical radiographs were taken. Ten dentists were asked to perform dental and periodontal scorings for each of the ten patients on a tablet computer presenting the IOS. Scores included diagnosis of gingivitis/periodontitis, and evaluated presence as well as amount of plaque and calculus, and presence of teeth exhibiting gingival recession, furcation involvement, erosion, tooth wear, stain, and non-carious cervical lesion, as well as presence of decayed, filled, and crowned teeth and implants. In a second round of assessments, the periapical radiographs were provided and the dentists were able to change the scores. The time for the remote assessment was recorded. The agreement between remote and clinical scorings (reference) was then analyzed descriptively.
RESULTS
The mean time for the tele assessment was 3.17 min and the additional consultation of the radiographs accounted for another 1.48 min. The sensitivity and specificity values were 0.61 and 0.39 for gingivitis and 0.67 and 0.33 for periodontitis, with no relevant changes when radiographs were provided for the diagnosis of periodontitis (0.72 and 0.28). The agreement for dichotomized dental and periodontal indices ranged between 78 and 95%. With the provision of radiographs, the remote examiners were able to detect existing filled teeth, crowned teeth, and implants, whereas the detection of decayed teeth (70%) was not improved.
CONCLUSIONS
The remote examination using IOS was effective in detecting dental findings, whereas periodontal conditions could not be assessed with the same accuracy. Still, remote assessment of IOS would allow a time-efficient screening and triage of patients. Improvement of the image quality of IOS may further allow to increase the accuracy of remote assessments in dentistry. According to the Swiss Regulation this investigation is not a clinical trial and therefore no registration in a WHO-registry is needed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Dentistry
Language:English
Date:25 September 2020
Deposited On:20 Nov 2020 14:51
Last Modified:21 Nov 2020 21:00
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1472-6831
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01255-8
PubMed ID:32977794

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