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Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Pathogenicity Alters Host’s Central Tolerance for Propagation


Sidler, Xaver; Sydler, Titus; Mateos, José Maria; Klausmann, Stefanie; Brugnera, Enrico (2020). Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Pathogenicity Alters Host’s Central Tolerance for Propagation. Pathogens, 9(10):839.

Abstract

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections and resulting diseases are a worldwide threat to pig production. PCV2 bears a uniqueness that allows for us to understand more about chronic infections and the immune system in general. The virus can be phylogenetically subdivided into PCV2a to PCV2h genotypes. Although vaccination against PCV2 has been seen to prevent the manifestation of PCV disease, PCV2 still lingers as subclinical infections in all developmental stages of pigs. The “slow and low” tactic gives PCV2 a particular advantage in a host’s immune surveillance. Since the inception of the PCV2 associated panzootic, research scientists have been trying to understand the pathogenicity of PCV2. Different research groups found that one genotype group member was more pathogenic than others. We found, in our weaner infection model with in vivo transfection of different recombinant PCV2 genotype group members that these viruses alter T cell maturation in the thymus, including host’s central tolerance. Here, we extend these original observations by showing that PCV2 infected cells were also found in proximity within the female and male reproductive organs of stillborn pig fetuses. These PCV2 pools were sufficient in infecting three and half-day-old embryos in sows. Furthermore, the dominant PCV2 group member was more pathogenic in our weaner infection model. PCV2 pre-immunocompetence infection makes PCV2 recognized by central immune tolerance as belonging to the host. This also explains why pathogenicity is not a genetically intrinsic characteristic of PCV2; however, the dominance of any one PCV2 genotype group member leads to a more efficient deletion of the T cells against that specific genotype group member in the thymus.

Abstract

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections and resulting diseases are a worldwide threat to pig production. PCV2 bears a uniqueness that allows for us to understand more about chronic infections and the immune system in general. The virus can be phylogenetically subdivided into PCV2a to PCV2h genotypes. Although vaccination against PCV2 has been seen to prevent the manifestation of PCV disease, PCV2 still lingers as subclinical infections in all developmental stages of pigs. The “slow and low” tactic gives PCV2 a particular advantage in a host’s immune surveillance. Since the inception of the PCV2 associated panzootic, research scientists have been trying to understand the pathogenicity of PCV2. Different research groups found that one genotype group member was more pathogenic than others. We found, in our weaner infection model with in vivo transfection of different recombinant PCV2 genotype group members that these viruses alter T cell maturation in the thymus, including host’s central tolerance. Here, we extend these original observations by showing that PCV2 infected cells were also found in proximity within the female and male reproductive organs of stillborn pig fetuses. These PCV2 pools were sufficient in infecting three and half-day-old embryos in sows. Furthermore, the dominant PCV2 group member was more pathogenic in our weaner infection model. PCV2 pre-immunocompetence infection makes PCV2 recognized by central immune tolerance as belonging to the host. This also explains why pathogenicity is not a genetically intrinsic characteristic of PCV2; however, the dominance of any one PCV2 genotype group member leads to a more efficient deletion of the T cells against that specific genotype group member in the thymus.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > General Immunology and Microbiology
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:13 October 2020
Deposited On:18 Dec 2020 14:46
Last Modified:23 Jun 2024 01:45
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2076-0817
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100839
PubMed ID:33066216
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)