With the current widespread use of dolutegravir in low-income countries, the understanding of the impact of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI-) associated mutations on the efficacy of dolutegravir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is of utmost importance. We describe a rare case of a patient with pre-existing M184V/I mutation and virological failure on a dolutegravir/lamivudine/abacavir regimen with the emergence of integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance mutations. Additional risk factors, which may have triggered the virological failure, included suboptimal adherence and low nadir CD4+ cell count. This case illustrates that dolutegravir-containing triple-therapy should be prescribed with caution to patients with pre-existing M184V/I mutation and poor efficacy of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. In addition, this case highlights the need for viral load monitoring in patients on dolutegravir-containing regimens in settings with a high prevalence of the M184V/I mutation such as in low-income countries.