Radiomics is a quantitative approach to medical imaging, which aims at enhancing the existing data available to clinicians by means of advanced mathematical analysis. Through mathematical extraction of the spatial distribution of signal intensities and pixel interrelationships, radiomics quantifies textural information by using analysis methods from the field of artificial intelligence. Various studies from different fields in imaging have been published so far, highlighting the potential of radiomics to enhance clinical decision-making. However, the field faces several important challenges, which are mainly caused by the various technical factors influencing the extracted radiomic features.
The aim of the present review is twofold: first, we present the typical workflow of a radiomics analysis and deliver a practical “how-to” guide for a typical radiomics analysis. Second, we discuss the current limitations of radiomics, suggest potential improvements, and summarize relevant literature on the subject.