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Selective extinction through cognitive evaluation: Linking emotion regulation and extinction


Macdonald, Birthe; Wake, Shannon; Johnstone, Tom (2020). Selective extinction through cognitive evaluation: Linking emotion regulation and extinction. European Journal of Neuroscience, 52(2):2873-2888.

Abstract

The extinction of a previously conditioned response can be modulated through cognitive processes, including feature-based information, and explicit instruction. Here, we introduce a selective extinction through cognitive evaluation (SECE) task in which information is cognitively evaluated on a trial-by-trial basis to ascertain the extinction contingencies. Participants were conditioned to expect an electric shock during the presentation of one of two letters (CS+/CS-). During the SECE task, the letters were presented within words belonging to two categories, one of which indicated safety (COG-_CS+ trials), while risk of shock was maintained for the other category (COG+_CS+ trials). Skin conductance responses indicated that participants reduced their response to COG-_CS+ trials compared to COG+_CS+ trials. Clusters in bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex showed activation for COG+_CS+ trials that was reduced for COG-_CS+ trials. A network of brain regions, including left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal and parietal cortices showed greater activation for COG-_CS+ versus COG+_CS+ trials. This is consistent with the semantic processing and decision-making necessary to evaluate the trial contingencies. We compared activation in the SECE task to activation in a cognitive reappraisal task in which participants were asked to attend to, or regulate their emotional reactions to affective IAPS images. This task replicated prefrontal activation seen in previous reappraisal studies. A voxelwise conjunction analysis found no overlap between the cognitive reappraisal and the SECE task, but we did find evidence for common activation in follow-up ROI analyses, supporting the idea of common lateral prefrontal mechanisms involved in both processes.

Abstract

The extinction of a previously conditioned response can be modulated through cognitive processes, including feature-based information, and explicit instruction. Here, we introduce a selective extinction through cognitive evaluation (SECE) task in which information is cognitively evaluated on a trial-by-trial basis to ascertain the extinction contingencies. Participants were conditioned to expect an electric shock during the presentation of one of two letters (CS+/CS-). During the SECE task, the letters were presented within words belonging to two categories, one of which indicated safety (COG-_CS+ trials), while risk of shock was maintained for the other category (COG+_CS+ trials). Skin conductance responses indicated that participants reduced their response to COG-_CS+ trials compared to COG+_CS+ trials. Clusters in bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex showed activation for COG+_CS+ trials that was reduced for COG-_CS+ trials. A network of brain regions, including left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal and parietal cortices showed greater activation for COG-_CS+ versus COG+_CS+ trials. This is consistent with the semantic processing and decision-making necessary to evaluate the trial contingencies. We compared activation in the SECE task to activation in a cognitive reappraisal task in which participants were asked to attend to, or regulate their emotional reactions to affective IAPS images. This task replicated prefrontal activation seen in previous reappraisal studies. A voxelwise conjunction analysis found no overlap between the cognitive reappraisal and the SECE task, but we did find evidence for common activation in follow-up ROI analyses, supporting the idea of common lateral prefrontal mechanisms involved in both processes.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > General Neuroscience
Language:English
Date:July 2020
Deposited On:15 Dec 2020 12:54
Last Modified:16 Dec 2020 21:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0953-816X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14701
PubMed ID:32043646

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