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The impact of surgical strategy and rifampin on treatment outcome in Cutibacterium periprosthetic joint infections


Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cutibacterium species are common pathogens in periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). These infections are often treated with β-lactams or clindamycin as monotherapy, or in combination with rifampin. Clinical evidence supporting the value of adding rifampin for treatment of Cutibacterium PJI is lacking.

MATERIALS/METHODS

In this multicenter retrospective study, we evaluated patients with Cutibacterium PJI. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined by the absence of infection relapse or new infection within a minimal follow-up of 12 months. We used Fisher's exact tests and Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the effect of rifampin and other factors on clinical success after PJI.

RESULTS

We included 187 patients (72.2% male, median age 67 years) with a median follow-up of 36 months. The surgical intervention was two-stage exchange in 95 (50.8%), one-stage exchange in 51 (27.3%), debridement and implant retention (DAIR) in 34 (18.2%), and explantation without reimplantation in 7 (3.7%). Rifampin was included in the antibiotic regimen in 81 (43.3%) cases. Infection relapse occurred in 28 (15.0%), and new infection in 13 (7.0%) cases. In the time-to-event analysis, DAIR (adjusted HR=2.15, p=0.03) and antibiotic treatment over 6 weeks (adjusted HR=0.29, p=0.0002) significantly influenced treatment failure. We observed a tentative evidence for a beneficial effect of adding rifampin to the antibiotic treatment - though not statistically significant for treatment failure (adjusted HR=0.5, p=0.07) and not for relapses (adjusted HR=0.5, p=0.10).

CONCLUSIONS

We conclude that a rifampin combination is not markedly superior in Cutibacterium PJI but a dedicated prospective multicenter study is needed.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cutibacterium species are common pathogens in periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). These infections are often treated with β-lactams or clindamycin as monotherapy, or in combination with rifampin. Clinical evidence supporting the value of adding rifampin for treatment of Cutibacterium PJI is lacking.

MATERIALS/METHODS

In this multicenter retrospective study, we evaluated patients with Cutibacterium PJI. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined by the absence of infection relapse or new infection within a minimal follow-up of 12 months. We used Fisher's exact tests and Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the effect of rifampin and other factors on clinical success after PJI.

RESULTS

We included 187 patients (72.2% male, median age 67 years) with a median follow-up of 36 months. The surgical intervention was two-stage exchange in 95 (50.8%), one-stage exchange in 51 (27.3%), debridement and implant retention (DAIR) in 34 (18.2%), and explantation without reimplantation in 7 (3.7%). Rifampin was included in the antibiotic regimen in 81 (43.3%) cases. Infection relapse occurred in 28 (15.0%), and new infection in 13 (7.0%) cases. In the time-to-event analysis, DAIR (adjusted HR=2.15, p=0.03) and antibiotic treatment over 6 weeks (adjusted HR=0.29, p=0.0002) significantly influenced treatment failure. We observed a tentative evidence for a beneficial effect of adding rifampin to the antibiotic treatment - though not statistically significant for treatment failure (adjusted HR=0.5, p=0.07) and not for relapses (adjusted HR=0.5, p=0.10).

CONCLUSIONS

We conclude that a rifampin combination is not markedly superior in Cutibacterium PJI but a dedicated prospective multicenter study is needed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:10 December 2020
Deposited On:16 Dec 2020 09:30
Last Modified:16 Dec 2020 09:31
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1058-4838
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1839
PubMed ID:33300545

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