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Microporosities in 3D-Printed Tricalcium-Phosphate-Based Bone Substitutes Enhance Osteoconduction and Affect Osteoclastic Resorption


Ghayor, Chafik; Chen, Tse-Hsiang; Bhattacharya, Indranil; Özcan, Mutlu; Weber, Franz E (2020). Microporosities in 3D-Printed Tricalcium-Phosphate-Based Bone Substitutes Enhance Osteoconduction and Affect Osteoclastic Resorption. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(23):9270.

Abstract

Additive manufacturing is a key technology required to realize the production of a personalized bone substitute that exactly meets a patient's need and fills a patient-specific bone defect. Additive manufacturing can optimize the inner architecture of the scaffold for osteoconduction, allowing fast and reliable defect bridging by promoting rapid growth of new bone tissue into the scaffold. The role of scaffold microporosity/nanoarchitecture in osteoconduction remains elusive. To elucidate this relationship, we produced lithography-based osteoconductive scaffolds from tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with identical macro- and microarchitecture, but varied their nanoarchitecture/microporosity by ranging maximum sintering temperatures from 1000 °C to 1200 °C. After characterization of the different scaffolds' microporosity, compression strength, and nanoarchitecture, we performed in vivo studies that showed that ingrowth of bone as an indicator of osteoconduction significantly decreased with decreasing microporosity. Moreover, at the 1200 °C peak sinter temperature and lowest microporosity, osteoclastic degradation of the material was inhibited. Thus, even for wide-open porous TCP-based scaffolds, a high degree of microporosity appears to be essential for optimal osteoconduction and creeping substitution, which can prevent non-unions, the major complication during bone regeneration procedures.

Abstract

Additive manufacturing is a key technology required to realize the production of a personalized bone substitute that exactly meets a patient's need and fills a patient-specific bone defect. Additive manufacturing can optimize the inner architecture of the scaffold for osteoconduction, allowing fast and reliable defect bridging by promoting rapid growth of new bone tissue into the scaffold. The role of scaffold microporosity/nanoarchitecture in osteoconduction remains elusive. To elucidate this relationship, we produced lithography-based osteoconductive scaffolds from tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with identical macro- and microarchitecture, but varied their nanoarchitecture/microporosity by ranging maximum sintering temperatures from 1000 °C to 1200 °C. After characterization of the different scaffolds' microporosity, compression strength, and nanoarchitecture, we performed in vivo studies that showed that ingrowth of bone as an indicator of osteoconduction significantly decreased with decreasing microporosity. Moreover, at the 1200 °C peak sinter temperature and lowest microporosity, osteoclastic degradation of the material was inhibited. Thus, even for wide-open porous TCP-based scaffolds, a high degree of microporosity appears to be essential for optimal osteoconduction and creeping substitution, which can prevent non-unions, the major complication during bone regeneration procedures.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:4 December 2020
Deposited On:17 Dec 2020 08:06
Last Modified:28 Feb 2021 08:23
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1422-0067
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239270
PubMed ID:33291724

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