Tumor heterogeneity is a well-known prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A major limitation of tissue- and blood-derived tumor markers is the lack of spatial resolution to image tumor heterogeneity. Tissue markers derived from tumor biopsies usually represent only a small tumor subregion at a single timepoint and are therefore often not representative of the tumors' biology or the biological alterations during and after treatment. Similarly, liquid biopsies give an overall picture of the tumors' secreted factors but completely lack any spatial resolution. Radiomics has the potential to give complete three-dimensional information about the tumor. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to assess the correlation of radiomics to tumor biology and treatment outcome in HNSCC and to assess current limitations of the radiomic biomarkers. In total, 25 studies that explored the ability of radiomics to predict tumor biology and phenotype in HNSCC and 28 studies that explored radiomics to predict post-treatment events were identified. Out of these 53 studies, only three failed to show a significant correlation. The major technical challenges are currently artifacts due to metal implants, non-standardized contrast injection, and delineation uncertainties. All studies to date were retrospective and none of the above-mentioned radiomics signatures have been validated in an independent cohort using an independent software implementation, which shows that transferability due to the numerous technical challenges is currently a major limitation. However, radiomics is a very young field and these studies hopefully pave the way for clinical implementation of radiomics for HNSCC in the future.