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Effects of an Iodine-Containing Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient on Maternal and Infant Iodine Status and Thyroid Function: A Randomized Trial in The Gambia


Eriksen, Kamilla G; Andersson, Maria; Hunziker, Sandra; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moore, Sophie E (2020). Effects of an Iodine-Containing Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient on Maternal and Infant Iodine Status and Thyroid Function: A Randomized Trial in The Gambia. Thyroid, 30(9):1355-1365.

Abstract

Background: Iodine supplementation is recommended to pregnant women in iodine-deficient populations, but the impact in moderate iodine deficiency is uncertain. We assessed the effect of an iodine-containing prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplement in a rural Gambian population at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Materials and Methods: This study uses data and samples collected as a part of the randomized controlled trial Early Nutrition and Immune Development (ENID; ISRCTN49285450) conducted in Keneba, The Gambia. Pregnant women (<20 weeks gestation) were randomized to either a daily supplement of MMNs containing 300 μg of iodine or an iron and folic acid (FeFol) supplement. Randomization was double blinded (participants and investigators). The coprimary outcomes were maternal urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and serum thyroglobulin (Tg), assessed at baseline and at 30 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes were maternal serum thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4) (assessed at baseline and at 30 weeks' gestation), breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) (assessed at 8, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum), infant serum Tg (assessed at birth [cord], 12, and 24 weeks postpartum), and serum TSH (assessed at birth [cord]). The effect of supplementation was evaluated using mixed effects models. Results: A total of 875 pregnant women were enrolled between April 2010 and February 2015. In this secondary analysis, we included women from the MMN (n = 219) and FeFol (n = 219) arm of the ENID trial. At baseline, median (interquartile range or IQR) maternal UIC and Tg was 51 μg/L (33-82) and 22 μg/L (12-39), respectively, indicating moderate iodine deficiency. Maternal MMN supplement increased maternal UIC (p < 0.001), decreased maternal Tg (p < 0.001), and cord blood Tg (p < 0.001) compared with FeFol. Maternal thyroid function tests (TSH, TT3, TT4, and TT3/TT4 ratio) and BMIC did not differ according to maternal supplement group over the course of the study. Median (IQR) BMIC, maternal UIC, and infant Tg in the MMN group were 51 μg/L (35-72), 39 μg/L (25-64), and 87 μg/L (59-127), respectively, at 12 weeks postpartum, and did not differ between supplement groups. Conclusions: Supplementing moderately iodine-deficient women during pregnancy improved maternal iodine status and reduced Tg concentration. However, the effects were not attained postpartum and maternal and infant iodine nutrition remained inadequate during the first six months after birth. Consideration should be given to ensuring adequate maternal status through pregnancy and lactation in populations with moderate deficiency.

Abstract

Background: Iodine supplementation is recommended to pregnant women in iodine-deficient populations, but the impact in moderate iodine deficiency is uncertain. We assessed the effect of an iodine-containing prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplement in a rural Gambian population at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Materials and Methods: This study uses data and samples collected as a part of the randomized controlled trial Early Nutrition and Immune Development (ENID; ISRCTN49285450) conducted in Keneba, The Gambia. Pregnant women (<20 weeks gestation) were randomized to either a daily supplement of MMNs containing 300 μg of iodine or an iron and folic acid (FeFol) supplement. Randomization was double blinded (participants and investigators). The coprimary outcomes were maternal urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and serum thyroglobulin (Tg), assessed at baseline and at 30 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes were maternal serum thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4) (assessed at baseline and at 30 weeks' gestation), breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) (assessed at 8, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum), infant serum Tg (assessed at birth [cord], 12, and 24 weeks postpartum), and serum TSH (assessed at birth [cord]). The effect of supplementation was evaluated using mixed effects models. Results: A total of 875 pregnant women were enrolled between April 2010 and February 2015. In this secondary analysis, we included women from the MMN (n = 219) and FeFol (n = 219) arm of the ENID trial. At baseline, median (interquartile range or IQR) maternal UIC and Tg was 51 μg/L (33-82) and 22 μg/L (12-39), respectively, indicating moderate iodine deficiency. Maternal MMN supplement increased maternal UIC (p < 0.001), decreased maternal Tg (p < 0.001), and cord blood Tg (p < 0.001) compared with FeFol. Maternal thyroid function tests (TSH, TT3, TT4, and TT3/TT4 ratio) and BMIC did not differ according to maternal supplement group over the course of the study. Median (IQR) BMIC, maternal UIC, and infant Tg in the MMN group were 51 μg/L (35-72), 39 μg/L (25-64), and 87 μg/L (59-127), respectively, at 12 weeks postpartum, and did not differ between supplement groups. Conclusions: Supplementing moderately iodine-deficient women during pregnancy improved maternal iodine status and reduced Tg concentration. However, the effects were not attained postpartum and maternal and infant iodine nutrition remained inadequate during the first six months after birth. Consideration should be given to ensuring adequate maternal status through pregnancy and lactation in populations with moderate deficiency.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Life Sciences > Endocrinology
Language:English
Date:30 September 2020
Deposited On:04 Jan 2021 07:44
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:17
Publisher:Mary Ann Liebert
ISSN:1050-7256
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0789
PubMed ID:32183608

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