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Effects of Contemporary Irrigant Activation Schemes and Subsequent Placement of an Interim Dressing on Bacterial Presence and Activity in Root Canals Associated with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis


Carvalho, Alexandre P L; Nardello, Laura C L; Fernandes, Fernanda S; Bruno, Fernanda P; Paz, Luiza R; Iglecias, Elaine F; Honório, Heitor M; Mayer, Márcia P A; Gavini, Giulio; Pinheiro, Ericka T (2020). Effects of Contemporary Irrigant Activation Schemes and Subsequent Placement of an Interim Dressing on Bacterial Presence and Activity in Root Canals Associated with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(3):854.

Abstract

New tools for activating endodontic irrigants have evolved, yet their impact on root canal disinfection, in comparison to the passive placing of an inter-visit medication, have not yet been fully elucidated. The use of DNA- and rRNA-based methods may cast some new light on this issue, as they allow a comparison to be made between microbial presence and activity. Therefore, the aim of this single-arm intervention trial is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of endodontic procedures using both molecular methods. Root canal samples were obtained from 20 patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis after each treatment step: access cavity, chemo-mechanical preparation, adjunctive procedures (XP-endo Finisher file and passive ultrasonic irrigation), calcium hydroxide medication, and 2nd-visit root canal preparation. DNA and cDNA from the samples were subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reaction with universal primers for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Chemo-mechanical preparation promoted a drastic reduction in bacterial levels and activity, whereas the adjunctive procedures did not make a significant contribution to further disinfection. At the 2nd visit, bacteria were active after the use of calcium hydroxide medication; however, they were significantly reduced after a 2nd-visit preparation. Consequently, the lowest bacterial levels were found at the end of the treatment. This clinical trial, which used an rRNA and rDNA combined approach, confirmed previous studies showing that root canal preparation represents the main strategy for root canal disinfection.

Abstract

New tools for activating endodontic irrigants have evolved, yet their impact on root canal disinfection, in comparison to the passive placing of an inter-visit medication, have not yet been fully elucidated. The use of DNA- and rRNA-based methods may cast some new light on this issue, as they allow a comparison to be made between microbial presence and activity. Therefore, the aim of this single-arm intervention trial is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of endodontic procedures using both molecular methods. Root canal samples were obtained from 20 patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis after each treatment step: access cavity, chemo-mechanical preparation, adjunctive procedures (XP-endo Finisher file and passive ultrasonic irrigation), calcium hydroxide medication, and 2nd-visit root canal preparation. DNA and cDNA from the samples were subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reaction with universal primers for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Chemo-mechanical preparation promoted a drastic reduction in bacterial levels and activity, whereas the adjunctive procedures did not make a significant contribution to further disinfection. At the 2nd visit, bacteria were active after the use of calcium hydroxide medication; however, they were significantly reduced after a 2nd-visit preparation. Consequently, the lowest bacterial levels were found at the end of the treatment. This clinical trial, which used an rRNA and rDNA combined approach, confirmed previous studies showing that root canal preparation represents the main strategy for root canal disinfection.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:20 March 2020
Deposited On:05 Jan 2021 18:26
Last Modified:24 Apr 2024 01:49
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2077-0383
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030854
PubMed ID:32245051
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)