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Some like it translated: small ORFs in the 5'UTR


Renz, Peter F; Valdivia-Francia, Fabiola; Sendoel, Ataman (2020). Some like it translated: small ORFs in the 5'UTR. Experimental Cell Research, 396(1):112229.

Abstract

The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is critical in determining post-transcriptional control, which is partly mediated by short upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in half of mammalian transcripts. uORFs are generally considered to provide functionally important repression of the main-ORF by engaging initiating ribosomes, but under specific environmental conditions such as cellular stress, uORFs can become essential to activate the translation of the main coding sequence. In addition, a growing number of uORF-encoded bioactive microproteins have been described, which have the potential to significantly increase cellular protein diversity. Here we review the diverse cellular contexts in which uORFs play a critical role and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying their function and regulation. The progress over the last decades in dissecting uORF function suggests that the 5'UTR remains an exciting frontier towards understanding how the cellular proteome is shaped in health and disease.

Abstract

The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is critical in determining post-transcriptional control, which is partly mediated by short upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in half of mammalian transcripts. uORFs are generally considered to provide functionally important repression of the main-ORF by engaging initiating ribosomes, but under specific environmental conditions such as cellular stress, uORFs can become essential to activate the translation of the main coding sequence. In addition, a growing number of uORF-encoded bioactive microproteins have been described, which have the potential to significantly increase cellular protein diversity. Here we review the diverse cellular contexts in which uORFs play a critical role and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying their function and regulation. The progress over the last decades in dissecting uORF function suggests that the 5'UTR remains an exciting frontier towards understanding how the cellular proteome is shaped in health and disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Language:English
Date:1 November 2020
Deposited On:08 Jan 2021 16:21
Last Modified:09 Jan 2021 21:02
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0014-4827
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112229
PubMed ID:32818479

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