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Which are the Central Aspects of Infant Sleep? The Dynamics of Sleep Composites across Infancy


Schoch, Sarah F; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Kurth, Salome (2020). Which are the Central Aspects of Infant Sleep? The Dynamics of Sleep Composites across Infancy. Sensors, 20(24):7188-7192.

Abstract

Sleep during infancy is important for the well-being of both infant and parent. Therefore, there is large interest in characterizing infant sleep with reliable tools, for example by combining actigraphy with 24-h-diaries. However, it is critical to select the right variables to characterize sleep. In a longitudinal investigation, we collected sleep data of 152 infants at ages 3, 6, and 12 months. Using principal component analysis, we identified five underlying sleep composites from 48 commonly-used sleep variables: Sleep Night, Sleep Day, Sleep Activity, Sleep Timing, and Sleep Variability. These composites accurately reflect known sleep dynamics throughout infancy as Sleep Day (representing naps), Sleep Activity (representing sleep efficiency and consolidation), and Sleep Variability (representing day-to-day stability) decrease across infancy, while Sleep Night (representing nighttime sleep) slightly increases, and Sleep Timing becomes earlier as one ages. We uncover interesting dynamics between the sleep composites and demonstrate that infant sleep is not only highly variable between infants but also dynamic within infants across time. Interestingly, Sleep Day is associated with behavioral development and therefore a potential marker for maturation. We recommend either the use of sleep composites or the core representative variables within each sleep composite for more reliable research.

Abstract

Sleep during infancy is important for the well-being of both infant and parent. Therefore, there is large interest in characterizing infant sleep with reliable tools, for example by combining actigraphy with 24-h-diaries. However, it is critical to select the right variables to characterize sleep. In a longitudinal investigation, we collected sleep data of 152 infants at ages 3, 6, and 12 months. Using principal component analysis, we identified five underlying sleep composites from 48 commonly-used sleep variables: Sleep Night, Sleep Day, Sleep Activity, Sleep Timing, and Sleep Variability. These composites accurately reflect known sleep dynamics throughout infancy as Sleep Day (representing naps), Sleep Activity (representing sleep efficiency and consolidation), and Sleep Variability (representing day-to-day stability) decrease across infancy, while Sleep Night (representing nighttime sleep) slightly increases, and Sleep Timing becomes earlier as one ages. We uncover interesting dynamics between the sleep composites and demonstrate that infant sleep is not only highly variable between infants but also dynamic within infants across time. Interestingly, Sleep Day is associated with behavioral development and therefore a potential marker for maturation. We recommend either the use of sleep composites or the core representative variables within each sleep composite for more reliable research.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Analytical Chemistry
Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Physical Sciences > Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Physical Sciences > Instrumentation
Physical Sciences > Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Language:English
Date:15 December 2020
Deposited On:11 Jan 2021 08:46
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:19
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1424-8220
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247188
PubMed ID:33333904

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