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Time-trend population analysis of the clinical and epidemiologic effect on pediatric infective endocarditis after change of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines


Knirsch, Walter; Schuler, Stefanie Katharina; Christmann, Martin; Weber, Roland (2020). Time-trend population analysis of the clinical and epidemiologic effect on pediatric infective endocarditis after change of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. Infection, 48(5):671-678.

Abstract

PURPOSE

In 2007, antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) changed, but the possible influence on the annual incidences of pediatric IE is unclear.

METHODS

We studied the clinical and epidemiologic impact of AP change by comparing two time periods before and after change of AP guidelines in a tertiary care center as referral center for a total population of more than 4,500,000 inhabitants.

RESULTS

After change of AP guidelines, twenty-five patients were diagnosed for IE at a median age of 6.9 years (range 0.1-19.4, female 48%). Modified Duke criteria were fulfilled for definite (12/25; 48%), or probable IE (13/25; 52%). The frequency of IE (cases per 1000 hospitalized patients) increased from 0.37% (1995-2005) to 0.59% (2006-2017) [p = 0.152], the annual incidence of IE (cases per 1000 CHD patients, < 20 years of age) increased from 0.195 ‰ to 0.399 ‰ [p = 0.072]. Postoperative IE (13/25; 52%), was associated mostly with prosthetic pulmonary valves (12/13; 92%). Pathogens were staphylococci spp. (8/25; 32%), streptococci spp. (7/25; 28%), HACEK (3/25; 12%), other (4/25; 16%), or culture-negative (3/25; 12%). Treatment included antibiotics (25/25; 100%), and cardiac surgery (16/25; 64%). The clinical findings and complications of pediatric IE including mortality (2/25; 8%) did not differ between the two time periods.

CONCLUSIONS

Pediatric IE remains a severe cardiac disease with a comparable clinical picture. Unless increasing absolute case numbers of IE, the relative case number of IE remains stable despite AP change. The high number of prosthetic pulmonary valve associated IE needs further evaluation and therapeutic alternatives.

Abstract

PURPOSE

In 2007, antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) changed, but the possible influence on the annual incidences of pediatric IE is unclear.

METHODS

We studied the clinical and epidemiologic impact of AP change by comparing two time periods before and after change of AP guidelines in a tertiary care center as referral center for a total population of more than 4,500,000 inhabitants.

RESULTS

After change of AP guidelines, twenty-five patients were diagnosed for IE at a median age of 6.9 years (range 0.1-19.4, female 48%). Modified Duke criteria were fulfilled for definite (12/25; 48%), or probable IE (13/25; 52%). The frequency of IE (cases per 1000 hospitalized patients) increased from 0.37% (1995-2005) to 0.59% (2006-2017) [p = 0.152], the annual incidence of IE (cases per 1000 CHD patients, < 20 years of age) increased from 0.195 ‰ to 0.399 ‰ [p = 0.072]. Postoperative IE (13/25; 52%), was associated mostly with prosthetic pulmonary valves (12/13; 92%). Pathogens were staphylococci spp. (8/25; 32%), streptococci spp. (7/25; 28%), HACEK (3/25; 12%), other (4/25; 16%), or culture-negative (3/25; 12%). Treatment included antibiotics (25/25; 100%), and cardiac surgery (16/25; 64%). The clinical findings and complications of pediatric IE including mortality (2/25; 8%) did not differ between the two time periods.

CONCLUSIONS

Pediatric IE remains a severe cardiac disease with a comparable clinical picture. Unless increasing absolute case numbers of IE, the relative case number of IE remains stable despite AP change. The high number of prosthetic pulmonary valve associated IE needs further evaluation and therapeutic alternatives.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:October 2020
Deposited On:12 Jan 2021 06:23
Last Modified:13 Jan 2021 21:00
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0300-8126
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01433-4
PubMed ID:32356253

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