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Genetic neuropathies presenting with CIDP-like features in childhood


Fernandez-Garcia, Miguel A; Stettner, Georg M; Kinali, Maria; Clarke, Antonia; Fallon, Penny; Knirsch, Ursula; Wraige, Elizabeth; Jungbluth, Heinz (2021). Genetic neuropathies presenting with CIDP-like features in childhood. Neuromuscular Disorders : NMD, 31(2):113-122.

Abstract

Inherited neuropathies are amongst the most common neuromuscular disorders. The distinction from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) may be challenging, considering its rarity in childhood, that genetic neuropathies may show secondary inflammatory features, and that subacute CIDP presentations may closely mimic the disease course of inherited disorders. The overlap between genetic neuropathies and CIDP is increasingly recognized in adults but rarely reported in children. Here we report 4 children with a neuropathy of subacute onset, initially considered consistent with an immune-mediated neuropathy based on suggestive clinical, laboratory and neurophysiological features. None showed convincing response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, leading to re-evaluation and confirmation of a genetic neuropathy in each case (including PMP22, MPZ and SH3TC2 genes). A review of the few Paediatric cases reported in the literature showed similar delays in diagnosis and no significant changes to immunomodulatory treatment. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering an inherited neuropathy in children with a CIDP-like presentation. In addition to an inconclusive response to treatment, subtle details of the family and developmental history may indicate a genetic rather than an acquired background. Correct diagnostic confirmation of a genetic neuropathy in a child is crucial for appropriate management, prognostication and genetic counselling.

Abstract

Inherited neuropathies are amongst the most common neuromuscular disorders. The distinction from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) may be challenging, considering its rarity in childhood, that genetic neuropathies may show secondary inflammatory features, and that subacute CIDP presentations may closely mimic the disease course of inherited disorders. The overlap between genetic neuropathies and CIDP is increasingly recognized in adults but rarely reported in children. Here we report 4 children with a neuropathy of subacute onset, initially considered consistent with an immune-mediated neuropathy based on suggestive clinical, laboratory and neurophysiological features. None showed convincing response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, leading to re-evaluation and confirmation of a genetic neuropathy in each case (including PMP22, MPZ and SH3TC2 genes). A review of the few Paediatric cases reported in the literature showed similar delays in diagnosis and no significant changes to immunomodulatory treatment. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering an inherited neuropathy in children with a CIDP-like presentation. In addition to an inconclusive response to treatment, subtle details of the family and developmental history may indicate a genetic rather than an acquired background. Correct diagnostic confirmation of a genetic neuropathy in a child is crucial for appropriate management, prognostication and genetic counselling.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Life Sciences > Neurology
Health Sciences > Neurology (clinical)
Health Sciences > Genetics (clinical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetics(clinical), Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health, Neurology, Clinical Neurology
Language:English
Date:1 February 2021
Deposited On:13 Jan 2021 17:24
Last Modified:08 Feb 2021 02:13
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0960-8966
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2020.11.013

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