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Comparison of smartphone-camera and conventional flatbed scanner images for analytical evaluation of chewing function


Fankhauser, Nicolas; Kalberer, Nicole; Müller, Frauke; Leles, Claudio R; Schimmel, Martin; Srinivasan, Murali (2020). Comparison of smartphone-camera and conventional flatbed scanner images for analytical evaluation of chewing function. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 47(12):1496-1502.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
The two-colour mixing test is a quick method to assess chewing function (CF). The use of smartphone cameras for acquiring images may help in further simplifying the process.
OBJECTIVE
This study evaluated the reliability of smartphone-camera images of chewing gums to assess CF.
METHODS
Five test samples of a bicoloured chewing gum were produced by a single fully dentate adult volunteer. The specimens were flattened to 1-mm thick wafers. The two sides of the wafers were digitised with a conventional flatbed scanner (control) and were photographed 20 times using 8 different smartphones. The images were assessed optoelectronically to obtain the variance of hue (VoH) and subjectively by visual assessment (SA) using a categorical scale (SA1-SA5). Spearman's correlation and regression models were used for statistical analyses.
RESULTS
The intra-group variability for SA1-SA3 was <1% for all smartphones, but significantly higher than controls for SA4 and SA5 (smartphone: SA4 = 5.57%; SA5 = 8.76%; control: SA4 = 2.5%; SA5 = 0.79%). VoH was progressively lower from SA1 to SA5 for all imaging devices (r > -.97; P < .001). VoH comparisons between control and smartphone images revealed significant differences for the individual SA categories, and however, the magnitude of differences was small and non-significant when the full range of SA levels were considered. The linear mixed model regression showed significant effects for all the smartphones (P < .001) and SA levels (P < .001) in relation to the flatbed scanner values.
CONCLUSIONS
Smartphone cameras may be used to evaluate colour mixture for a bolus-kneading test, however, the precision is lower with higher degrees of colour mixing.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
The two-colour mixing test is a quick method to assess chewing function (CF). The use of smartphone cameras for acquiring images may help in further simplifying the process.
OBJECTIVE
This study evaluated the reliability of smartphone-camera images of chewing gums to assess CF.
METHODS
Five test samples of a bicoloured chewing gum were produced by a single fully dentate adult volunteer. The specimens were flattened to 1-mm thick wafers. The two sides of the wafers were digitised with a conventional flatbed scanner (control) and were photographed 20 times using 8 different smartphones. The images were assessed optoelectronically to obtain the variance of hue (VoH) and subjectively by visual assessment (SA) using a categorical scale (SA1-SA5). Spearman's correlation and regression models were used for statistical analyses.
RESULTS
The intra-group variability for SA1-SA3 was <1% for all smartphones, but significantly higher than controls for SA4 and SA5 (smartphone: SA4 = 5.57%; SA5 = 8.76%; control: SA4 = 2.5%; SA5 = 0.79%). VoH was progressively lower from SA1 to SA5 for all imaging devices (r > -.97; P < .001). VoH comparisons between control and smartphone images revealed significant differences for the individual SA categories, and however, the magnitude of differences was small and non-significant when the full range of SA levels were considered. The linear mixed model regression showed significant effects for all the smartphones (P < .001) and SA levels (P < .001) in relation to the flatbed scanner values.
CONCLUSIONS
Smartphone cameras may be used to evaluate colour mixture for a bolus-kneading test, however, the precision is lower with higher degrees of colour mixing.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Klinik für Allgemein-, Behinderten- und Seniorenzahnmedizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Dentistry
Language:English
Date:December 2020
Deposited On:06 Jan 2021 15:59
Last Modified:07 Jan 2021 21:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0305-182X
Additional Information:This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Fankhauser, Nicolas; Kalberer, Nicole; Müller, Frauke; Leles, Claudio R; Schimmel, Martin; Srinivasan, Murali (2020). Comparison of smartphone-camera and conventional flatbed scanner images for analytical evaluation of chewing function. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 47(12):1496-1502, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/ 10.1111/joor.13094. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. (http://www.wileyauthors.com/self-archiving)
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.13094
PubMed ID:32966643

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