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The relative risk of second primary cancers in Switzerland: a population-based retrospective cohort study


Feller, Anita; Matthes, Katarina L; Bordoni, Andrea; Bouchardy, Christine; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Herrmann, Christian; Konzelmann, Isabelle; Maspoli, Manuela; Mousavi, Mohsen; Rohrmann, Sabine; Staehelin, Katharina; Arndt, Volker (2020). The relative risk of second primary cancers in Switzerland: a population-based retrospective cohort study. BMC Cancer, 20:51.

Abstract

Background

More people than ever before are currently living with a diagnosis of cancer and the number of people concerned is likely to continue to rise. Cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC). This study aims to investigate the risk of SPC in Switzerland.
Methods

The study cohort included all patients with a first primary cancer recorded in 9 Swiss population-based cancer registries 1981–2009 who had a minimum survival of 6 months, and a potential follow-up until the end of 2014. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to estimate relative risks (RR) of SPC in cancer survivors compared with the cancer risk of the general population. SIR were stratified by type of first cancer, sex, age and period of first diagnosis, survival period and site of SPC.
Results

A total of 33,793 SPC were observed in 310,113 cancer patients. Both male (SIR 1.18, 95%CI 1.16–1.19) and female (SIR 1.20, 95%CI 1.18–1.22) cancer survivors had an elevated risk of developing a SPC. Risk estimates varied substantially according to type of first cancer and were highest in patients initially diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, Hodgkin lymphoma, laryngeal, oesophageal, or lung cancer. Age-stratified analyses revealed a tendency towards higher RR in patients first diagnosed at younger ages. Stratified by survival period, risk estimates showed a rising trend with increasing time from the initial diagnosis. We observed strong associations between particular types of first and SPC, i.e. cancer types sharing common risk factors such as smoking or alcohol consumption (e.g. repeated cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (SIRmales 20.12, 95%CI 17.91–22.33; SIRfemales 37.87, 95%CI 30.27–45.48).
Conclusion

Swiss cancer survivors have an increased risk of developing a SPC compared to the general population, particularly patients first diagnosed before age 50 and those surviving more than 10 years. Cancer patients should remain under continued surveillance not only for recurrent cancers but also for new cancers. Some first and SPCs share lifestyle associated risk factors making it important to promote healthier lifestyles in both the general population and cancer survivors.

Abstract

Background

More people than ever before are currently living with a diagnosis of cancer and the number of people concerned is likely to continue to rise. Cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC). This study aims to investigate the risk of SPC in Switzerland.
Methods

The study cohort included all patients with a first primary cancer recorded in 9 Swiss population-based cancer registries 1981–2009 who had a minimum survival of 6 months, and a potential follow-up until the end of 2014. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to estimate relative risks (RR) of SPC in cancer survivors compared with the cancer risk of the general population. SIR were stratified by type of first cancer, sex, age and period of first diagnosis, survival period and site of SPC.
Results

A total of 33,793 SPC were observed in 310,113 cancer patients. Both male (SIR 1.18, 95%CI 1.16–1.19) and female (SIR 1.20, 95%CI 1.18–1.22) cancer survivors had an elevated risk of developing a SPC. Risk estimates varied substantially according to type of first cancer and were highest in patients initially diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, Hodgkin lymphoma, laryngeal, oesophageal, or lung cancer. Age-stratified analyses revealed a tendency towards higher RR in patients first diagnosed at younger ages. Stratified by survival period, risk estimates showed a rising trend with increasing time from the initial diagnosis. We observed strong associations between particular types of first and SPC, i.e. cancer types sharing common risk factors such as smoking or alcohol consumption (e.g. repeated cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (SIRmales 20.12, 95%CI 17.91–22.33; SIRfemales 37.87, 95%CI 30.27–45.48).
Conclusion

Swiss cancer survivors have an increased risk of developing a SPC compared to the general population, particularly patients first diagnosed before age 50 and those surviving more than 10 years. Cancer patients should remain under continued surveillance not only for recurrent cancers but also for new cancers. Some first and SPCs share lifestyle associated risk factors making it important to promote healthier lifestyles in both the general population and cancer survivors.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Genetics
Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetics, Cancer Research, Oncology
Language:English
Date:1 December 2020
Deposited On:13 Jan 2021 11:34
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:21
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2407
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6452-0
PubMed ID:31964352

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