This case report describes the clinical, ultrasonographic and postmortem findings in an alpaca with Mycobacterium kansasii infection. The alpaca was referred because of chronic weight loss and weakness. The results of clinical examination, haematology and serum biochemistry were not diagnostic. Ultrasonography of the liver revealed multiple, hyperechogenic lesions with a diameter of 1 to 3 cm. Histological evaluation of a liver biopsy sample showed acute, multifocal, suppurative, necrotising hepatitis. Despite treatment with antibiotics, the alpaca died. Postmortem examination revealed nodular to coalescing lesions in the liver, lungs, mediastinum, pleura and greater omentum, which could not be differentiated macroscopically or histologically from lesions caused by tuberculosis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed massive numbers of rods within epithelioid macrophages, which were identified as Mycobacterium kansasii by polymerase chain reaction analysis.